Tlingit ḵwáan, clan, and house list

Tlingit society is divided into two moieties (locally often “sides” in English), exogamous matrilineal groups. Each moiety or side is composed of about 60 matrilineal clans, and each clan is composed of a variable number of house groups in different villages. Orthogonal to this system is the ḵwáan system that divides the Tlingit nation up into geopolitical groups called ḵwáan. This document is an attempt to list all the moieties, clans, house groups, and ḵwáan, referencing both ethnological and oral history sources. Each Tlingit name is deconstructed and explained as best as possible under the circumstances, and if there are competing explanations then each claim is presented with its supporting evidence. This is not meant to be a prescriptive document, but rather a descriptive one providing what knowledge is available to as wide an audience as is possible. Tlingit readers are encouraged to consult their own elders and decide for themselves about the most ‘correct’ interpretations of Tlingit traditions.

This document is derived from an unpublished manuscript by Jeff Leer dated November 1985 and titled “Tlingit tribe, clan, and house group names”. Leer’s basis was Frederica de Laguna’s table of “Tlingit Tribes and Clans” published in the Northwest Coast volume of the Handbook of North American Indians. This was based on a table originally compiled by George Emmons, as later edited and published in de Laguna’s The Tlingit Indians (an adaptation of Emmons’s notes and manuscripts). Jeff Leer extended this work with information from consulting Tlingit elders such as John Marks, Charlie Joseph, Angela Sidney, Walter Soboleff, and others.

I have converted and reorganized Jeff Leer’s document and added to it from information I have obtained from many other sources, especially Andy Hope III’s Tlingit Map and Tribal List, and Ronald L. Olson’s Social structure and social life of the Tlingit in Alaska. The latter source was cited by both Hope and Leer, but there is ample evidence that neither worked from it in any great detail since Olson offers much more detail and accuracy for southern groups than is given by either Hope or Leer. In addition to such written sources, I have continued the tradition of explicitly citing oral histories from knowledgeable Tlingit elders where possible. I have also returned to Leer’s written sources and have added more precise citations, extensive quotations, and further commentary on them.

Jeff Leer’s original document included two notices, one that it should be considered a draft and hence not definitive, and the other that unverified names had been excluded. This document is also a draft and is expected to change over time. People citing this document should include the last modified date at the bottom in their citation. Rather than exclude unverified names, I have included them with as much detail as available so that our understanding may be expanded by further contributions.

The symbol ÿ represents the voiced velar approximant sound /ɰ/ (a.k.a. “gamma”, though it is not actually /ɣ/) which is now extinct in Tlingit, but which was attested among some speakers as late as the 1980s. This sound shifted to either y or w in the speech of younger speakers, and can be generally read as equivalent to y in this document. Leer previously used ɏ or to represent this sound before switching to ÿ. Swanton recorded this sound as in his transcriptions, and various earlier sources use r, g, and Cyrillic г, among others.

Pronunciation guides are not given for Tlingit since the orthography is sufficient. Pronunciation is given for other languages, including English, between slashes /lai̯k sou̯/. These guides are always given using the International Phonetic Alphabet using symbols appropriate for the phonemes of the specific language.

Quotations from sources which provide Tlingit in various transcriptions, particularly quotations from Swanton (Sw 1908) and Olson (Ol 1967), have the same terms rendered in the modern orthography in [square brackets]. Other editorial emendations are occasionally included in the same manner.

For the use of “Wolf” versus “Eagle” for the non-Raven moiety, see the section on Wolf Clans below.

Table of contents

Ḵwáan

A ḵwáan is a geopolitical group in Tlingit culture. It has no exact English translation, but is often given as “tribe” or “people”. Each ḵwáan is centered around a settlement or two, and is comprised of a number of clans which may also be found elsewhere, e.g. the Kiks.ádi are found in Shtaxʼhéen Ḵwáan but also in the Sheetʼká Ḵwáan and the Saanÿaa Ḵwáan.

Membership in a ḵwáan is somewhat flexible in contrast to membership in a clan. Generally the particular ḵwáan of a Tlingit person is the ḵwáan in which that person was born, unless they have strong ties to some other ḵwáan such as if their parents only recently moved to the birthplace. Some people claim ḵwáan membership on the basis of their clan being predominantly located in a single ḵwáan, for example the Naanÿaa.aaÿí being exclusively in the Shtaxʼhéen Ḵwáan. Traditionally, membership in a specific ḵwáan did not involve many specific rights or obligations, and instead had more to do with social relationships and familiarity with the landscape. Today the ḵwáan has become more important as it has been adapted into the modern village government and village corporation systems, and as traditional kinship and clan ties have decayed.

Ḵwáan names are subject to some regular phonological changes in Tlingit. When a compound is made of nouns all the nouns except the last will lose any high tone, and only the last noun keeps its high tone if any. Thus the words lú ‘nose’, tú ‘inside’, and xʼúxʼ ‘membrane’ together form a compound lutuxʼúx ‘nasal membrane’, where both lú and tú have low tone. In addition it is common for long vowels to become short except in the last noun, so that the words tlʼeiḵ ‘finger’ and x̱ʼáak ‘space between things’ form a compound tlʼeḵx̱ʼáak ‘space between fingers’. Both of these phenomena are found in the names of ḵwáan. The Tlingit name for the Inland Tlingit is Daḵka Ḵwáan, which is a compound of daaḵ ‘inland’, ká ‘upon’, and ḵwáan. Only the last part of this compound retains its long vowel and high tone, the word ḵwáan. Note that this is a compound despite being written with a space between the two words, since otherwise the long vowel and high tone would not be reduced.

Clans are given in the following list for convenient reference. Detailed information about each clan can be found in the section on clans below.

  1. Taantʼá Ḵwáan, Taantʼaḵwáan: Contraction of Taan Yatʼák Ḵwáan (CJ). People from Taan, Prince of Wales Island. The name is simply ‘sealion’ according to GM, and was applied to approximately the southeast third of the whole island (Ol 1967: 82). Apparently because of their recent settlement at Nakat Bay on Tongass Island, they are often known as the Tʼang̱aas Ḵwáan or Tʼang̱aash Ḵwáan ‘Tongass people’ (Ol 1967: 82). This name seems to be a Coast Tsimshian placename originally. The form ending with -sh is probably closer to the Coast Tsimshian pronunciation, since in that language s is not differentiated from sh. But GM told Olson that this name (Ol 1967: 82):
    derived from the time of the first contact with the whites, about 1800, when the tribe was living in the winter village on Tamgas Creek (which flows out of Tamgas Lake) in Tamgas Harbor on the southern end of Anette Island.
    Olson then said that he did not know which etymology was correct, but noted that members refer to themselves as Taantʼá Ḵwáan and not Tʼaang̱aash Ḵwáan. The conventional English name is “Tongass” /ˈtɑŋ.gəs/, as applied to the National Forest, though certainly it would be more accurate to call them “Tanta” /ˈtan.tə/ instead. Swanton has “Tᴀng̣āʹc qoan” (Sw 1908: 396), i.e. Tang̱aash Ḵwáan, which misses the ejective , a typical mistake for him. He also gives “Tᴀng̣āʹc” as their settlement (Sw 1908: 397). Regarding their history, Swanton says (Sw 1908: 408):
    Traditions regarding the origin of the two clans [G̱aanax̱.ádi and Teiḵweidí] point unanimously to Prince of Wales Island and Kuiu, and, if we are to trust them still further, the G̣ānᴀxᴀʹdî [G̱aanax̱.ádi] were the first people to settle at Tongas, whither they had come from Tᴀʹqdjîk-ān [Tʼaḵjik.aan] on the northwest coast of Prince of Wales Island, then the principal Henya village. According to another story the Tongas people came to Kuiu from the south, and afterwards started back to the present site of Tongas, which they had previously noticed. During this last migration tthey camped for a time on an island called Tᴀng̣āʹc [Tʼang̱aash], and later gave its name to their village. This tradition probably refers to the G̣ānᴀxᴀʹdî [G̱aanax̱.ádi], for the Kuiu and Henya people are very closely related.
    Olson however has a very different recent history that is probably more reliable having come from GM who was a member of the ḵwáan (Ol 1967: 3):
    Traditionally their earliest home village was in Stone Rock Bay, but possibly in Moira Sound. This is the only Tlingit tribe which was wholly displaced by the Haida. From Prince of Wales Island they moved repeatedly, to Duke, [Annette], Dundas, Cat, and other islands. Probably about 1880 they established their town on Tongass Island and so came to be called the Tongass Tribe. In 1880 they numbered only 173.
    Olson provides a lengthy “History of the Tantakwan [Taantʼá Ḵwáan]” given by GM which is very detailed and informative (Ol 1967: 82–102). It is far too long to give here in full. As Olson points out, they seem to have originally inhabited much if not all of the area now claimed by the Kaigani Haida around the southern end of Prince of Wales Island.
  2. Saanÿaa Ḵwáan: People from Saanÿaa, Cape Fox, most of whom moved to Saxman. Saanÿaa is the contracted form of sáa-niÿaa ‘south-direction’ (HD); compare sáanáx̱ ‘from the south’, and see Heinÿaa Ḵwáan and Xunaa Ḵáawu. In English this name is usually “Sanya” /ˈsɑn.jə/ ~ /ˈsʌn.jə/. The meaning “southward” implies something in relation to a location or group further north, but the history is unclear. Swanton notes the velar approximant ÿ in his “Sāʹnỵa qoan” (Sw 1908: 396). He states that their settlement was “G̣āc” (i.e. G̱aash) (Sw 1908: 397), which is known in English as “Cape Fox”. HD confirms this as G̱aash (also Tongass Tlingit G̱aaʻsh), but he also describes several settlements such as Asgutu.aan, X̱eel, X̱án, etc. HD states once that there were seventeen houses in Saanÿaa Ḵwáan, spread across the three clans there («Jinkaat ḵa dax̱.atwooshú teeyeen hasdu kahídi» DD009-A 22:07).
  3. Heinÿaa Ḵwáan, Hinÿaaḵwáan, Lawaak Ḵwáan: The first name is probably a contracted form of héi niÿaa ‘facing this way’, compare héináx̱ ‘over this way, hither’, as with Saanÿaa above. Emmons says this is a contraction of “Hay-nuk-a-koo-oo-woo” héinax̱.á ḵu.oowú (héi-náx̱-á ḵu-.oo-ÿí ‘hither-along-place areal-dwell-attrib’) meaning ‘this people over here’ which may instead be a descriptive expansion. Olson cites JD as saying “Hȧngȧkwan [Hanÿa Ḵwáan]” and “Hĕngakwan [Henÿaa Ḵwáan] (Ol 1967: 107), explaining the use of ÿ as a dialectal difference. The form Hinÿaaḵwáan given above is a reduction and reanalysis of the first so that it appears to be from héen ‘water, stream’. The first form is attested from Southern Tlingit speakers, from Sw, and Em. The second is from CJ and CP. In English the conventional borrowing is “Henya” /ˈhɛn.jə/ although “Hinya” /ˈhɪn.jə/ and “Heinya” /ˈhei̯n.jə/ are also used regularly. Speculatively, this ḵwáan and the Saanÿaa Ḵwáan could be some of the earliest ḵwáan names in Tlingit; one can imagine the Heinÿaa people distinguishing between themselves “over here” and the Saanÿaa people “southward”. The primary settlements today are Klawock (Eng. /kləˈwɑk/, Tlingit Lawaak) and Craig (Tlingit Shaanséet, see Shangukeidí below). Swanton has the velar approximant ÿ in his “Hēʹnỵa qoan [Hénÿaa ḵwáan]” (Sw 1908: 396). He gives settlements as “Cᴀxāʹn [Shaxaan]” which is Shakan, “Łᴀwāʹk [Lawaak]” which is Klawock, and “Tᴀʹqdjik-ān [Tʼaḵjik.aan]” which is Tuxekan (Sw 1908: 397), but see below for the latter. Olson occasionally gives the name Klawakkwan [Lawaak Ḵwáan] as an equivalent to Heinÿaa Ḵwáan, presumably because Klawock is the primary settlement in this ḵwáan today (e.g. Ol 1967: 105). At one point he implies that there was once a settlement called Heinÿaa, saying “the Henya have disappeared as a tribe, the remnants having moved to Klawak or elsewhere” (Ol 1967: 107), which could be taken as implying that Klawock once constituted its own ḵwáan, but in general Olson (and hence JD) uses the label “Henya” for denizens of Klawock and other villages in the region.
  4. Tʼaḵjik.aan Ḵwáan: People from Tʼaḵjik.aan, Tuxekan located on the northwest of Prince of Wales Island across from Tuxekan Island. The entire village moved to Klawock and Craig in the very late 19th century, apparently at the behest of missionaries and the territorial government. The initial part of the name is unclear, the -aan is probably from aan ‘land, village’. The English equivalent is “Tuxekan” /ˈtʌk.sɪ.kæn/. Neither Sw nor JL note this as a separate ḵwáan, but Andy Hope III and SL do, as do elders in Klawock and Craig. Swanton lists the village “Tᴀʹqdjik-ān” as part of Heinÿáa Ḵwáan (Sw 1908: 397). This ḵwáan may not have been entirely distinct from the Heinÿaa Ḵwáan, perhaps slowly developing into a separate ḵwáan over time but arrested by the depopulation of the main village. About the history, Swanton says (Sw 1908: 408):
    The family history of [the G̱aanax̱.ádi] is certainly closely associated with the town of Tᴀʹqdjik-ān [Tʼaḵjik.aan] for it was there that a G̣ānᴀxᴀʹdî [G̱aanax̱.ádi] woman nursed a woodworm, thus giving her people the woodworm emblem, and, as above noted, the Takᵘaneʹdî [Taakw.aaneidí] (Winter people) are the Klawak branch of that clan.
    Swanton suggests that the Henya people came from Tuxekan rather than the other way around (Sw 1908: 410):
    Formerly the Henya of the west coast of Prince of Wales island lived at Tuxican (Tᴀʹqdjik-ān [Tʼaḵjik.aan]), but later their chief moved to Klawak (Łᴀwāʹk [Lawaak]), where he owned a salmon creek, and all of his people followed.
  5. Shtaxʼhéen Ḵwáan, Shxʼatḵwáan: People from Shtaxʼhéen, the Stikine River. The primary settlement is in Wrangell today, but was earlier the settlement known as “Old Town” in English and variously Chaashit.aan (cháash-hít-aan ‘brush-house-town’) or Chʼaalʼit.aan (chʼáalʼ-hít-aan ‘willow-house-town’) in Tlingit. Swanton says “Formerly the principal Stikine town was Qāłtcᴀʟ!-ān”, which might be something like Ḵaalchalʼ.aan. The name of the river seems to be from Shdatáxʼ Héen ‘it-bites-itself river’, explained by CD as evoking the whirlpools in the Stikine Grand Canyon. The “biting self” is as a dog biting itself or chasing its tail, thus a whirling or spinning motion. The meaning of Shxʼatḵwáan is unclear. Wrangell is Ḵaachx̱ana.áakʼw, with -áakʼw being the same as Áakʼw, i.e. “little lake”, referring to Wrangell Harbor (formerly the mouth would go nearly dry and hence the harbor would actually appear to be a lake). The name “Stikine” in English is /stɪˈkin/.
  6. Kooÿu Ḵwáan, Kuÿu Ḵwáan: People from Kooÿú or Kuÿú, in English Kuiu Island, specifically Port Conclusion and Armstrong Bay. Most people moved to Kake after the area was ravaged by smallpox. The English spelling of the island name is from Russian Кую /ˈkuju/ where the letter ю is often transliterated as iu. The meaning of the placename is unclear. The English version is either “Kuyu” or “Kuiu”, both pronounced /ˈku.ju/. Swanton gives “Kuiu qoan”, i.e. Kuyu Ḵwáan (Sw 1908: 396, 397) at first, but the name “Kuỵeʹdî [Kooÿeidí]” (Sw 1908: 401, 410) implies the velar approximant ÿ. It is peculiar that this sound was changed to y rather than to w between two rounded vowels, so Swanton’s forms may be misheard or a typo.
  7. Ḵéex̱ʼ Ḵwáan, Ḵéix̱ʼ Ḵwáan: People from Ḵéex̱ʼ, Kake. The form Ḵéix̱ʼ is normal in Northern Tlingit where the ḵ and x̱ʼ cause the vowel ee to be lowered to ei, as in the word g̱eey (Southern) versus g̱eiy (Northern), both meaning ‘bay’. The meaning of the name Ḵéex̱ʼ is unclear. One explanation is that it is from ḵee x̱ʼé ‘dawn mouth’, thus “the opening of daylight”; the word ḵee is archaic and is now only found as an incorporated noun in the verb ḵee-ÿa-.aa ‘to dawn’ (literally “for dawn to sit”) and the derived noun ḵee.á ‘dawn, early morning’, but DK (1973) uses it once in the word ḵeexʼ ‘at dawn’. In English the name is always “Kake” /kei̯k/, pronounced like the dessert.
  8. Sʼawdáan Ḵwáan: People from Sʼawdáan, Sumdum. The name seems to contain the word sʼaaw ‘crab’. The English name Sumdum /ˈsʌm.dʌm/ was probably originally borrowed as Sumdun, and the presence of the m points to the Tlingit name being *Sʼamdáan with an m instead of w, a sound otherwise found only among the Inland Tlingit people. This may be a reflex of a prehistoric change from *m to w, or it may be a feature of Athabaskan languages that was transferred into Tlingit.
  9. Tʼaaḵu Ḵwáan: People from Tʼaaḵú, the Taku River. Many people say that this is a contraction of tʼaawáḵ g̱alaḵú ‘goose flood’, in reference to the plentiful Canada geese which stop there during migration and also the population resident around Juneau during the winter. JL notes that the final -ḵu is a common placename suffix which may indicate some other meaning. The English equivalent is “Taku” /tɑˈku/.
  10. Áakʼw Ḵwáan: People from Áakʼw, Auke Lake near Juneau. This is simply áa-kʼ(w) |lake-dim|, i.e. ‘little lake’. In English pronounced like the sea bird, “Auke” /ɑk/ or /ɒk/. Both Áakʼw Ḵwáan and Tʼaaḵu Ḵwáan have overlapping territory in the Juneau area, although Áakʼw Ḵwáan has exclusive territory north of Gastineau Channel and Tʼaaḵu Ḵwáan has exclusive territory south of Gastineau Channel. The town of Juneau is “officially” called Dzantikʼi Héeni (either ‘little flounder stream’ or ‘base of the flounder stream’), but Tlingit speakers typically refer to it as Jóono or Jóona in Tlingit.
  11. Áatlein Ḵwáan, Áatlen Ḵwáan: People from Áatlein, Lake Atlin in northern British Columbia. The Tlingit name of the lake and hence the ḵwáan is simply áa-tlein |lake-big| ‘big lake’. In English it is pronounced /ˈæt.lɪn/. Today the people of Áatlein Ḵwáan strongly identify as Tlingit, however it is clear from both oral and European histories that the area was once dominated by Athabaskans. The very earliest European records report Athabaskan people in the area, likely related to the Tagish and Tahltan, and called Taku Athabaskan by researchers.
  12. Deisleen Ḵwáan, Desleen Ḵwáan: People from Teslin, the community on Teslin Lake in the Yukon. The Tlingit name Deisleen is purportedly translated as “big sinew”, implying the underlying form tás-tlein |sinew-big|. The unaspirated initial d- however is unexpected, as is the reduction of tlein to -leen. (The vowel e is common in Teslin and Carcross Tlingit for Coastal Tlingit a, also heard occasionally among some speakers from Jilḵáat Ḵwáan like LS.) The name may however be originally Athabaskan, compare the common Athabaskan placenames like Deline meaning something like “flowing” (e.g. Slave Délįnę /télĩ̀nẽ̀/, Witsuwitʼen Tse lenli /tsʰe lenli/). In English the Tlingit placename is pronounced either /ˈtɛzlɪn/ or /ˈtɛslɪn/.
  13. Taagish Ḵwáan, Tagish Ḵwáan, Taageesh Ḵwáan, Tageesh Ḵwáan: People from Tagish and Carcross, in the Yukon. The name of this ḵwáan is not Tlingit, but is instead borrowed from the now extinct Tagish Athabaskan language which was formerly the native language of people in this area before Tlingit acculturation. The name in Tagish is Tākizi. The Tlingit form is usually with a long vowel in the first syllable, although occasionally it is found with a short vowel instead. The second syllable is normally short. The English pronunciation is usually /ˈtægɪʃ/ though the more faithful /ˈtɑgɪʃ/ is also sometimes used.
  14. Xutsnoowú Ḵwáan, Xootsnoowú Ḵwáan, Xudzidaa Ḵwáan: People from Xutsnoowú, Admiralty Island. A contraction of xoots noowú ‘brown bear’s fortress’, in reference to the large population of brown bears on the island. Not widely used in English, hence variations abound; the form “Kootznahoo” /ˈkuts.nə.hu/ and “Hootsnawoo” /ˈhuts.nə.wu/ are heard among others. The name is the source of one of a very few Tlingit loanwords in English, namely the term “hooch” for poor quality liquor, with an earlier form “hoochenoo”. This ḵwáan was fiercely independent from the territorial government and hence carried on a profitable trade in moonshine, as noted by Muir among many others.
  15. Sheetʼká Ḵwáan, Shee Tʼiká Ḵwáan: People from Sheetʼká, Sitka. A contraction of Shee tʼiká ‘Pacific side of Shee’, where Shee is the name of Baranof Island. This name seems to be the noun shee ‘limb, branch (of a tree)’, though several elders insist that the name is actually unrelated to that common noun (HK). The city takes its name from the ḵwáan, thus in English “Sitka” /ˈsɪt.kʌ/. In Russian the city was officially known as Ново Архангельскъ /ˈnovo arxanˈgʲelʲsk/ meaning “New Archangel”, but the Tlingit people there were generally known by some variation on Шитка /ˈʂitka/ which was borrowed from Tlingit. In modern Russian the name is borrowed instead from English, thus Ситка /ˈsitka/. The name “Shee Atika” /ʃiˈætikə/ used in English is due to misunderstanding of the name as two separate components shee ‘branch’ and (a) tʼiká ‘(its) back side, far side’ given in their citation forms as in dictionaries.
  16. Jilḵáat Ḵwáan: People from Jilḵáat, Chilkat. LS gives Chilḵáat Ḵwáan with an initial aspirated affricate. The first syllable is said to be from chál ‘cache’ (Southern and Inland Tlingit chíl). Compare Eyak jiłqa·d /tʃiɬqʰaːt/ for Bering River and jiłqahyaʼ /tʃiɬqʰahjaʔ/ for the village known as Chilkat on the Bering River, both derived from Eyak jił ‘platform cache; bunkbed’. MK says that Eyak jił is probably a borrowing from Athabaskan, and Tlingit chál ~ chíl may well be a borrowing too; certainly it is peculiar to have an Eyak name as far south as the Chilkat area. The English name is “Chilkat” /ˈtʃɪɫ.kæt/.
  17. Jilḵoot Ḵwáan: People of the Chilkoot area, including Lutak Inlet and Taiya Inlet (Chilkoot Lake, Dyea, Skagway). The meaning is unclear. Another name for the area is Lḵoot, which is apparently interchangeable with Jilḵoot. Chilkoot Lake is called Lḵut.áaÿi (CJ, WS, AH), i.e. “Lake of Lḵoot”. It is possible that ji- (‘hand’?) was added to Lḵoot to make it sound similar to Jilḵáat. In English it is “Chilkoot” /ˈtʃɪɫ.kut/.
  18. Xunaa Ḵáawu, Xunaa Ḵwáan: People from Xunaa, which is Hoonah. The name Xunaa is a contraction of xoon niÿaa ‘facing the north wind’. The use of ḵáawu ‘men of’ instead of ḵwáan is unique, and this is explained by the fact that they used to be residents of Glacier Bay rather than Hoonah before the glaciers completely covered the land. Some say Xunaa Ḵwáan as well, and claim that Xunaa Ḵáawu is incorrect. Various spellings such as “Huna” and “Hoonah” are used, but the pronunciation in English is always /ˈhu.nʌ/. The town is sometimes jokingly referred to as “Hoonahlulu” in English, a play on the Hawaiian city of Honolulu.
  19. G̱unaax̱oo Ḵwáan: People from G̱unaax̱oo, the Dry Bay and Akwe River area. G̱unaax̱oo is a contraction of G̱unanaa x̱oo ‘among Athabaskans’, referring to the Southern Tutchone and Tagish who would come down the Tatshenshini (Eng. /tæt.ʃənˈʃi.ni/, Tlingit Tʼachanshahéeni from tʼá-chán-shá-héen-ÿí ‘king.salmon-stink-head-river-possessive’) and Alsek (Eng. /ˈæɫ.sɛk/, Tlingit Aalséix̱ ‘he/it always rests there’) Rivers. This ḵwáan name is rarely heard in English, instead “Dry Bay” is often used.
  20. Yaakwdáat Ḵwáan, Laax̱aaÿík Ḵwáan: People from Yaakwdáat, Yakutat. The name Yaakwdáat is from Eyak diyaʼqudaʼt /tijaʔqʰutaʔt/ but has been influenced by the Tlingit word yaakw ‘boat, canoe’. There are various folk etymologies from people who do not know the original Eyak name. The name Laax̱aaÿík is derived from Eyak łaʼx̣aʼ /ɬaʔχaʔ/ ‘glacier’ plus Tlingit ÿík ‘inside’. In English the name of the town is “Yakutat” /ˈjæ.kə.tæt/.
  21. G̱alyáx̱ Ḵwáan, G̱alyéx̱ Ḵwáan: People from G̱alyáx̱ or G̱alyéx̱, the Kaliakh River. Also the Yakataga and Controller Bay area in general. From the Eyak ɢałyax̣ /qaɬjaχ/. Though the ḵwáan is only rarely talked about in English, the river name is “Kaliakh” /ˈkɑ.li.æk/ or /ˈkæ.li.æk/, influenced by the transliteration of Russian Галя́х /galˈjax/ using ia for я /ja/.

Raven clans

The Raven moiety is one of the two moieties in Tlingit society. Each clan in the Raven moiety claims Raven (Yéil) as a primary crest, and Raven is featured extensively in the art of Raven clans. Note however that Raven stories are not formally owned by the Raven clans, but are instead the common property of all Tlingits. In contrast, a Raven Hat (several exist in different clans) is the specific property of a particular Raven clan, and Raven songs and names are also clan property.

  1. Laaÿineidí, Laaÿisháa: Also Laaÿaneidí/Laaÿasháa and Laaÿeeneidí (Southern Tlingit, FH). A general name for all Raven clans. It is not clear what laaÿee(n)- or laaÿa(n)- means.
  2. G̱aanax̱.ádi group
    1. G̱aanax̱.ádi, G̱aanax̱sháa (Taantʼá, Heinÿaa, Sʼawdáan, Tʼaaḵu, Áakʼw, Xunaa, G̱alyáx̱): People of G̱aanáx̱, a ‘sheltered’ harbor at Port Stuart in northern Behm Canal (Em). Swanton mentions “an island near Cape Spencer called G̣ānᴀxaʹ [?G̱aanax̱áa]” which may be related, though he describes it as claimed by the Tʼaḵdeintaan (Sw 1908: 418). Olson gives “Gana′x” as meaning ‘side of the mountain’ and being near Port Simpson, speculating that the mountain is Needle Mountain (Ol 1967: 25); we can discount this as unrelated because he is misreading his “G” for his “C” pronounced sh which would give Shaanáx̱ ‘along the mountain’. Olson says then that the usual claim is to “Ganax [G̱aanáx̱] in Port Stewart in Behm Canal” (Ol 1967: 25). The legend Olson refers to purports to explain how the Heinÿaa Ḵwáan G̱aanax̱.ádi and the G̱aanax̱teidí left the Saanÿaa Ḵwáan G̱aanax̱.ádi; presumably the Taantʼá Ḵwáan G̱aanax̱.ádi were actually meant since there are none of this clan otherwise documented in Saanÿaa Ḵwáan. The G̱aanax̱.ádi are also called ?Shakaḵwáan (Em). The clan name of G̱aanax̱.ádi was borrowed by the Coast Tsimshian as the name of their Raven clan, G̱anhada. Swanton did not note the presence of any G̱aanax̱.ádi in Heinÿaa Ḵwáan (Sw 1908: 401), but given the abundant evidence from JD via Olson, as well as the present existence of G̱aanax̱.ádi resident in Klawock and not from Tʼaḵjik.aan, we can assume that Swanton’s consultants were either poorly informed or that Swanton simply missed noting their presence. Andy Hope III apparently derived most of his information about Heinÿaa Ḵwáan from Swanton, and hence also missed the large G̱aanax̱.ádi presence there.
      • Taantʼá Ḵwáan
        • Ÿan Wuliháshi Hít: Drifted Ashore House (Ol 1967: 10). “Legend has it that this is the oldest house group of the clan, going back to the time of Raven” (Ol 1967: 10).
        • Yéil Hít: Raven House (Sw 1908: 400, Ol 1967: 10). “The two rear posts were carved with figures of Raven. This household grew out of [Ÿan Wuliháshi Hít]” (Ol 1967: 10).
        • Sʼáx Hít: Starfish House (Sw 1908: 400, Ol 1967: 10). “Three starfish were painted on its front. This household grew out of [Yéil Hít]” (Ol 1967: 10). Olson said that this house, Yéil Hít, and Ÿan Wuliháshi Hít were “regarded as really one ‘household’”, so that the second descended from the first and the third from the second, and all were lumped together under the Ÿan Wuliháshi Hít as a kind of ‘superhouse’. He did not obtain details about the effects of this relationship, however (Ol 1967: 10).
        • Yéil Sʼaag̱í Hít: Raven’s Bones House (Ol 1967: 10). “This was also called Waktlde′dih [Waḵldeidí] (people of Waktl [Waḵlt], Dundas Island” (Ol 1967: 10).
        • Noow Hít: Fort House (Sw 1908: 400, Ol 1967: 10). “This is merely a subdivision of [Yéil Sʼaag̱í Hít], the two counting as one ‘household’” (Ol 1967: 10).
        • Gijook Hít: Golden Eagle House (Sw 1908: 400, Ol 1967: 10). The meaning of gijook or kijook is not entirely clear. It seems to mean ‘golden eagle’ for some speakers, but others describe it as being some other unidentified raptor, or instead as a mythical bird. Olson’s consultants followed the latter, since he says “The kidju [gijook] is a mythical bird, the ‘mother’ of Thunderbird [Xetl]” (Ol 1967: 10).
        • Xaas Hít: Buffalo House (Sw 1908: 400, Ol 1967: 10). See the remarks below for the Xaas.hittaan branch of the Lʼuknax̱.ádi for more on the word xaas ‘buffalo, bison; cattle’. Also see the entry for the Ḵooskʼeidí below. Olson has some commentary on this (Ol 1967: 10):
          This group was often spoken of as the Xashittan [Xaas.hittaan] and was probably well on the way to becoming a distinct clan; but in feasts they were spoken of as Ganaxadi [G̱aanax̱.ádi] or Ganuwutlacihittan [Ÿan Wulihashihittaan]. Traditionally they are an offshoot of [Ÿan Wuliháshi Hít]. The word Xas [xaas] is a confusing one, even to the Tlingit. It has been variously translated as “moose”, “cow”, and “skin”.
          Swanton gives it as “moose” (Sw 1908: 400). It is fairly clear from ethnography of the Inland Tlingit (McC 19xx: xx) that the word xaas applied to buffalo (bison) which have been extinct for some time in the neighbouring interior country. The word seems to have been applied to domestic cattle after European contact, competing with the Chinook Jargon loanword wasóos (from CJ musmús) for the same.
        • Taan Hít: Sea Lion House (Ol 1967: 10). According to Olson, they are “also called Xatinnetihit [?... Hít], from Xatinneti [?], the name of Hall Cove on Duke Island” (Ol 1967: 10). Olson was incorrect about the name of Hall Cove, which is instead Wat.sa.áakʼu. There is a place called X̱áa Tá near Hall Cove which might fit, but this does not explain the “...nneti” of the name he provides.
        • Ḵutisʼ Hit: Looking Out House (Sw 1908: 400).
        • Ÿaaÿ Hít: Whale House.
        • Xʼaagóon Hít: Isthmus Point House (Sw 1908: 400). Swanton gives this as “Q!ᴀ′tgun hît [Ḵʼátgoon Hít] (house built on a narrow point)”. The word xʼaa is ‘point’ and góon is ‘isthmus’ or ‘portage’, so Swanton probably misheard the name Xʼaagóon.
      • Heinÿaa Ḵwáan
        • Ÿan Wuliháshi Hít: Drifted Ashore House (Ol 1967: 109). Founded by “Adȧwu′tlcani′h” [Aadawóotl Shaaní] in “Yuxtckȧ·a′n” [Yuxchʼka.aan ‘Town on Sea Otter’] (Ol 1967: 109). Olson notes the folk etymology of “Gȧwutlacihĭt” [Ÿan Wuliháshi Hít] from “Adȧwu′tlcanhĭtti” [Adawóotl Shaaní Hídi]. This is probably also the house mentioned earlier by Olson: “Yikhuh [?] built a house at Yuktckȧa′n [Yuxchʼka.aan]” (Ol 1967: 105).
        • Ÿaaw Hít: Herring House (Ol 1967: 109). This was apparently named because “a potlatch was given and the gifts were mainly in iron spikes called gau [ÿaaw] because they were the size and shape of herring (these had been found in driftwood)” (Ol 1967: 109), but Olson seems to be mistakenly applying this to the house that became Ÿan Wuliháshi Hít. He earlier says “After the Tekweidih [Teiḵweidí] went back to the Tantakwan [Taantʼá Ḵwáan] the whole ceremonial house belonged to the Ganaxadi [G̱aanax̱.ádi] and the name was changed to Gauhĭt [Ÿaaw Hít] Herring House” (Ol 1967: 104). Olson questions whether the house should be called ‘Drum House’, presumably from his confusion between gaaw ‘drum’ and ÿaaw ‘herring’.
        • Yaaÿ Hít: Whale House (Ol 1967: 103, 109). Originally (?) built at “Asnu′h” [Aas Noow] ‘tree fort’ (103), which might be the original settlement of Klawock. This is probably the same house belonging to the Taakw.aaneidí, who are a branch of the G̱aanax̱.ádi.
        • Deishú Hít: End of the Trail House (Ol 1967: 105). The same name as the more famous house of the Deisheetaan, but this house has a distinct founding story. “Yikhuh [?] built another house just this side of Craig and called it Decuhĭt [Deishú Hít] (end of the trail house). A trail went from Asnu [Aas Noow] to there” (Ol 1967: 105). It is unclear what side of Craig this is supposed to be, whether to the north near Klawock, or to the south.
        • Shisʼḵ Noow Hít: Sapling Fort House (Ol 1967: 105). Olson quotes JD as saying that Yikhuh [?] “built another house just at the end of Canoe Pass and called it Cĭsknuhĭt [Shisʼḵ Noow Hít]”. Olson’s translation as “spruce fort house” is erroneous.
        • “Tlkatlȧkȧtsknu′” [?...kátskʼ Noow]: White Stone Fort (Ol 1967: 105). May have been only a fort rather than a true house, but Olson quotes JD as saying “At the rapids of Salt Lake he built another house and called it Tlkatlȧkȧtsknu′”. The part of the name “kȧts” is probably káts ‘limestone’, perhaps with the diminutive -kʼ after it. The “nu′” is certainly noow ‘fort’. The preceding portion of the name has yet to be deciphered, but it may be a relativized verb with a form like lakatli.
      • Tʼaḵjik.aan Ḵwáan
        • Ÿan Wuliháshi Hít: Drifted Ashore House (Ol 1967: 110). “Gȧnwutlácihĭt (floating house, or perhaps more properly, drifted ashore house). It is said to have been founded by a ‘Ganaxadi grandchild’ named Gȧnwutlaciya′g [Ÿan Wuliháshi Yaaÿ] ‘drifted ashore whale?’” (Ol 1967: 110).
        • Ÿan Wuliháshi Hít 2: Drifted Ashore House 2 (Ol 1967: 110). Founded by Gaanyaa and located behind the first house (Ol 1967: 110).
      • Tʼaaḵu Ḵwáan
        • Ishká Hít: Atop the Fish Hole House (Sw 1908: 400).
        • Ÿan Wuliháshi Hít: Drifted Ashore House (Sw 1908: 400). Swanton says this name refers to the time of the flood, but that disagrees with its explanation in the Taantʼá Ḵwáan and Heinÿaa Ḵwáan.
        • Yéil Hít: Raven House (Sw 1908: 400).
      • Áakʼw Ḵwáan
        • G̱aanax̱aa Hít: G̱aanax̱aa House.
        • Yéil Hít: Raven House.
      • Xunaa Ḵáawu
        • G̱aanax̱aa Hít: G̱aanax̱aa House.
      • G̱alyáx̱ Ḵwáan
        • ?
    2. Deikée G̱aanax̱.ádi (Heinÿaa): According to JD via Olson, a “group of the Ganaxadi [G̱aanax̱.ádi] who moved from Klawak [Lawaak] to Baker Island where they founded a town called Xȧkkȧká′n [Xaakka.aan] (empty clam shell town)” (Ol 1967: 109), so named because an old woman went clam digging there and only got empty shells. They were regarded as “almost” a separate clan. Olson did not provide any house names.
    3. G̱aanax̱teidí, G̱aanax̱tasháa (Jilḵáat, G̱unaax̱oo?, Taagish): Essentially the same as G̱aanax̱.ádi. The name apparently comes from G̱aanáx̱ tá ‘the head of G̱aanáx̱ (bay)’. Some speakers use G̱aanax̱sháa as the feminine form for G̱aanax̱teidí as well as G̱aanax̱.ádi (WS). Note Eyak ɢa·nax̣te·(yu·) /qaːnaχtʰeː(juː)/ which refers to the same clan and is borrowed from Tlingit (MK).
      • Jilḵáat Ḵwáan
        • X̱ʼáakw Hít: Freshwater Marked Sockeye House.
        • Ÿaaÿ Hít: Whale House.
        • X̱ʼaak Hít: Ravine House.
        • Ḵutisʼ Hít: Looking out to Sea House.
        • Xíxchʼi Hít: Frog House.
        • Ishká Hit: Atop the Fish Hole House.
      • Tagish Ḵwáan
        • ?
      • G̱unaax̱oo Ḵwáan
        • ?
    4. Ishkahittaan, Ishkeetaan (Tʼaaḵu, Áatlein, Deisleen, Taagish): From Ishká Hít ‘house on a fish hole’, on the east bank of the Chilkat River above Spuhn Point (Em). A branch of the G̱aanax̱teidí (deL). This clan name is used among the Inland Tlingit to refer to the same clan that are called G̱aanax̱tedí on the coast. In other words, all the Inland Ishkahittaan are called G̱aanax̱tedí on the coast. The reverse is probably not true, not all the Coastal G̱aanax̱teidí are called Ishkahittan among the Inland Tlingit. Compare the Ishká Hít of the G̱aanax̱.ádi in Tʼaaḵu Ḵwáan and the same house of the G̱aanax̱teidí in Jilḵáat Ḵwáan.
      • Áatlein Ḵwáan
        • ?
      • Deisleen Ḵwáan
        • ?
      • Tagish Ḵwáan
        • ?
    5. Taakw.aaneidí (Heinÿaa, Tʼaḵjik.aan): From Táakw Aaní ‘winter village’, a Tongass (Taantʼá Ḵwáan) village at Port Chester, Annette Island (FW, Sw, Em, Ol). A Heinÿaa and Tʼaḵjik.aan branch of the G̱aanax̱.ádi.
      • Heinÿaa Ḵwáan
        • Ÿaaÿ Hít: Whale House.
      • Taḵjik.aan Ḵwáan
        • Taan Hit: Sea Lion House.
  3. Kiks.ádi group
    1. Kiks.ádi (Saanÿaa, Shtaxʼhéen, Sheetʼká): Sources disagree as to the exact meaning. The place called Kíks is either Helm Bay in western Behm Canal (GD, Ol) or an island near it (Sw 1908: 408). Emmons gives “Kiks gae [Kíks G̱eiyí]” for Helm Bay itself. Also called ?Xixchʼ.ádi ‘frog people’, and earlier were “Kih sheesh” (Em, transcription uncertain). According to Emmons’s sources, this was the oldest group. People sometimes pronounce the name as Kiksádi, without the glottal stop (HD), this may be a Southern and Transitional phenomenon uncommon in the north. Linguistically there is an interesting parallel between Kiks.ádi and Xixchʼ.ádi, since k and x are both velar sounds, and s and chʼ are both apical sounds; the likelihood of Kiks.ádi being an adaptation of Xixchʼ.ádi is however rather low. Swanton was of the opinion that the Kiks.ádi were recent immigrants to the Saanÿaa Ḵwáan, he noted that it was named after “an island in the vicinity” and that it was certainly one of the great clans which moved northward from the south (Sw 1908: 409). He also notes “two of the principal mythologic heroes of the Tlingit bear Kîksᴀʹdî names” and hence they may be quite ancient (Sw 1908: 409).
      • Saanÿaa Ḵwáan
        • Wéix̱ʼ Hít: Bullhead House (Ol 1967: 4).
        • Yéil Hít: Raven House. (HD)
        • Xíxchʼ Hít: Frog House. (HD)
      • Shtaxʼhéen Ḵwáan
        • G̱agaan Hít: Sun House.
        • Tax̱ʼ Hít: Snail House. See the discussion of the same house name among the Tax̱ʼhittan in the Lʼuknax̱.ádi group below.
        • Xíxchʼi Hít: Frog House. Probably also without the final -i.
      • Sheetʼká Ḵwáan
        • At.uwaxiji Hít: Strong House.
        • G̱agaan Hít: Sun House.
        • Kax̱átjaa Hít: Jumping Herring House.
        • Noowtú Hít: Inside the Fort House.
        • Noow Daganyaa Hit: Outside the Fort House.
        • Sʼé Hít: Clay House.
        • Shdéen Hít: Steel House.
        • Tináa Hít: Copper Shield House.
        • Xʼaaká Hít: On the Point House.
    2. Teeÿhittaan (Shtaxʼhéen): From Teeÿ Hít ‘yellow cedar bark house’, where teeÿ is the Tlingit term for the bark of the yellow cedar tree. A branch of the Kiks.ádi. Often called the “Bark House People” in English. Swanton says (Sw 1908: 410):
      It is said that the wives of some Kîksᴀʹdî [Kiks.ádi] people once quarreled, and all of one side moved out into a house made of bark, from which circumstance they came to be called Bark-house people (Tī hît tān [Teeÿhittaan]).
      • Shtaxʼhéen Ḵwáan
        • Teeÿ Hít: Yellow Cedar Bark House.
    3. Teeÿineidí (Heinÿaa, Tʼaḵjik.aan, Ḵéex̱ʼ): From ?Teeÿ Héeni ‘yellow cedar bark stream’. According to Swanton this name is just a variant of Teeÿhittaan (Sw 1908: 410):
      At Wrangell the Bark-house people are credited with but one house group, but the Tēʹnedi [Teeÿineidí] of Klawak [Lawaak] constitute part of the same clan, their name being merely a variation of Tī hît tān [Teeÿhittaan].
      The two clans are thus probably one and the same, but they act somewhat separately nowadays.
      • Heinÿaa Ḵwáan
        • Yéil Hít: Raven House.
        • Teeÿ Hít: Yellow Cedar Bark House.
      • Tʼaḵjik.aan Ḵwáan
        • Gaax̱ka Hít: Gaax̱ká House.
        • Héènká Hít: On the Water House.
        • Sʼax Hít: Starfish House.
        • Yéil Hít: Raven House.
        • Yéil Yádi Hít: Little Raven House.
      • Ḵéex̱ʼ Ḵwáan
        • Kóoshdaa Hít: Land Otter House.
        • Teeÿ Hít: Yellow Cedar Bark House.
    4. Kooḵhittaan (Tʼaaḵu, Áatlein, Deisleen, Taagish): From Kóoḵ Hít ‘pit house’, so “Pit House People”. This clan migrated from Seenáa to the interior (MaJ). The placename Seenáa is found in Waterman’s collection of Southern Tlingit placenames. Should not be confused with the Ḵookhittaan ’Box House People’.
      • Tʼaaḵu Ḵwáan
        • ?
      • Áatlein Ḵwáan
        • Xaas Hít: Bison/Cattle House. See the remarks below for the Xaas.hittaan branch of the Lʼuknax̱.ádi for more on the word xaas ‘bison; cattle’.
      • Deisleen Ḵwáan
        • ?
      • Tagish Ḵwáan
        • ?
  4. Taalḵweidí group
    1. Taalḵweidí (Shtaxʼhéen): From Taalḵú, Thomas Bay (GD), a bay east of Cape Fanshaw. Taalḵunax̱kʼushaa is the mountain called Devils Thumb nearby (JM, Em).
      • Shtaxʼhéen Ḵwáan
        • Shaa Hít: Mountain House.
        • Kax̱ḵuyendu Aa Hít: Kax̱ḵuyendu Lake House.
        • G̱ílʼ Hít: Cliff House.
    2. ?Kaasx̱ʼagweidí or ?Ḵaasx̱ʼaakweidí (Shtaxʼhéen): From ?Ḵaasx̱ʼéikw, a small bay that they settled in after leaving Kasaan (Kasa.aan) (Em) on their way to Wrangell (Sw). MS said she had heard the name Kaasx̱ʼagweidí, but wasn’t too sure about it. This form agrees with Swanton’s “Ka·sqʼagweʼdi”. CJ knows it from a song as Ḵaasx̱ʼaakweidí and says it is from the south. Said to have a “similar origin” with the Taalḵweidí. “According to their present chief, [they] were originally Haida from the Stᴀʼstas clan of Masset. More immediately, they are said to have from from the ?Wudshaninaa, a clan at Kasaan.” (Sw 1908: 411). This latter name looks like it would be Northern Tlingit wudishani naa ‘old/gray-haired clan’.
      • Shtaxʼhéen Ḵwáan
        • Xeitl Hít: Thunderbird House.
        • Tlʼaadein Hít: Sideways House.
        • Xíxchʼi X̱aayí Hít: Frog’s Den House.
        • Taan Hít: Sea Lion House.
  5. Lukaax̱.ádi group
    1. Lukaax̱.ádi, Lukaax̱sháa (Jilḵoot, Jilḵáat, G̱unaax̱oo): From lukaax̱, which is apparently not a placename but literally means ‘off the point/nose (of it)’, said to refer to a spur-of-the-moment decision in the history of their migration (WS). Emmons gives two separate glosses: “people who take the blame for the trouble”, “(came) by way or around the point”; alternatively he says this could refer to an old living place at the north end of Wrangell Narrows near Petersburg, named by Taantʼá Ḵwáan for a man whom they had captured in war and who escaped. Swanton translates this as “quick people” (Sw 1908: 400). JM says they migrated from Duncan Canal, and further “G̱unaax̱oo Ḵwáan were also Lukaax̱.ádi, but they lived among the Canadian which was called Lukaax̱; before migration they were known as the Taalḵweidí.”
      • Jilḵoot Ḵwáan
        • Yéil Hít: Raven House.
        • Yéil Kíji Hít: Raven’s Wing House.
        • Shaa Hít: Mountain House.
        • Kooshdaa Hít: Land Otter House.
        • G̱eisán Hít: Mount Ripinsky House.
      • Jilḵáat Ḵwáan
        • ?
      • G̱unaax̱oo Ḵwáan
        • Shaká Hít: Prow House.
    2. Noowshaka.aaÿí (Jilḵáat): Apparently means ‘the ones ahead of the fort’. A branch of the Lukaax̱.ádi (Em, Sw 1908: 413).
      • Jilḵáat Ḵwáan
        • ?
  6. Ḵaach.ádi group
    1. Ḵaach.ádi (Shtaxʼhéen, Ḵéex̱ʼ): From Ḵáach, Pybus Bay (JJ, AF, JM), or a creek on Admiralty Island (Sw).
      • Shtaxʼhéen Ḵwáan
        • Náalx̱ Hít: Big Halibut House.
        • Xíxchʼi Hít: Frog House.
        • Alḵaa Hít: Gambling House.
        • G̱aach Hít: Mat House.
        • Kaawdliyaayi Hít: Lowered House.
        • Ÿaaÿ Hít: Whale House.
      • Ḵéex̱ʼ Ḵwáan
        • X̱ʼáakw Hít: Freshwater Marked Sockeye House.
        • Ḵutisʼ Hít: Looking out to Sea House.
    2. Suḵteeneidí, Saḵwteeneidí, Suḵtuneidí, Suḵtineidí (Ḵéex̱ʼ): The former two forms are Southern Tlingit, the latter two are Northern Tlingit. From Suḵtuhéen ‘stream in the grass’, where ‘grass’ is sooḵ, a stream on a flat on Keku Strait below Hamilton Bay (Em). Considered a division of the Ḵaach.ádi, as well as “probably the remaining Raven clans at Kake” (Sw 1908: 410).
      • Ḵéex̱ʼ Ḵwáan
        • Aanx̱ʼaak Hít: Middle of Town House.
        • Shaa Hít: Mountain House.
        • Tax̱ʼ Hít: Snail House.
        • Wanda Hít: Armor House.
        • Yéik Hít: Spirit House.
    3. Skanax̱.ádi (Ḵéex̱ʼ): From Skanáx̱, Saginaw Bay (JJ, CJ). The same clan as Ḵaach.ádi (JJ).
      • Ḵéex̱ʼ Ḵwáan
        • ?
    4. Taneidí (Ḵéex̱ʼ): From Tanahéen, Tunehean Creek (JJ, Em). Swanton gives “tᴀn”.
      • Ḵéex̱ʼ Ḵwáan
        • ?
    5. Ḵʼalchaneidí, X̱ʼalchaneidí (Ḵéex̱ʼ): From Ḵʼalchanhéen (CJ) or X̱ʼalchán (WS, Sw), apparently from the verb x̱ʼalichán ‘its/his mouth stinks’. According to early sources, a “bad smelling” stream (Sw, Em), or from the mudflats on Duncan Canal just west of Wrangell Narrows (Em). Other streams and bays elsewhere are also described as “stinking”, e.g. X̱án or Smeaton Bay (HD), so this is certainly a defining characteristic of some places. For x̱ʼ ~ ḵʼ compare the incorporated noun x̱ʼa- ‘mouth’ which is also ḵʼa- in some verb themes.
      • Ḵéex̱ʼ Ḵwáan
        • ?
  7. Deisheetaan group
    1. Deisheetaan, Deishittaan (Xutsnoowú, Áatlein, Deisleen, Tagish): From Deishú Hít ‘house at the end of the trail’, located at the end of Beaver Trail street in Angoon (CG, AZ), or alternatively located near Point Craven outside of Sitkoh Bay (JJ). Deishittaan is the older pronunciation and is the only one in Southern Tlingit (CJ, FH), but Deisheetaan is usual in Northern Tlingit. “Part of the Hutsnuwu [Xootsnoowú] people were called Asankʼiqoan [Asáankʼi Ḵwáan], but these appear to have formed a local rather than a clan group” (Sw 1908: 412). There is probably an old connection between the Deisheetaan and the G̱aanax̱.ádi based on shared at.óowu such as the name Geetwein, but this relationship is not clear.
      • Xutsnoowú Ḵwáan
        • Dáanaa Hít: Silver House.
        • Deishú Hít: End of the Trail House.
        • Góon Hít: Spring House.
        • Shdéen Hít: Steel House.
        • Tuḵká Hít: Needlefish House.
        • Yéil Hít: Raven House.
        • Yéil Sʼaag̱í Hít: Raven’s Bones House.
        • Kaaḵáakʼw Hít: Basket/Arch House
      • Áatlein Ḵwáan
        • ?
      • Deisleen Ḵwáan
        • ?
      • Tagish Ḵwáan
        • Deishú Hít: End of the Trail House (IC).
    2. Aanx̱ʼaakhittaan (Xutsnoowú): From Aanx̱ʼaak Hít ‘house in the middle of the village’, compare the Suḵteeneidí house of the same name in Ḵéex̱ʼ Ḵwáan. Mutually separated from the Deisheetaan (Sw). They call themselves Lʼeeneidí as well (JJ, WS, deL, AZ), but their relationship with the Lʼeeneidí is not clear yet. CJ in contrast says that these Lʼeeneidí are not related to the Deisheetaan so that they should be listed under the Lʼeeneidí group instead.
      • Xutsnoowú Ḵwáan
        • Aanx̱ʼaak Hít: Middle of Town House.
        • Yanxoon Hít: Logjam House.
    3. Tuḵÿeidí (Xutsnoowú): From tuḵÿee ‘outlet’, thus “Outlet People”, so called because they lived at the outlet of a lake (Sw). For example, Point Retreat is Xutsnoowú Lutú ‘Brown Bear Fortress Point’ and Point Gardiner is Xutsnoowú Tuḵyee ‘Brown Bear Fortress Outlet’ (WS). A branch of the Deisheetaan (Sw), claiming Beaver (Em).
      • Xutsnoowú Ḵwáan
        • ?
    4. Ḵakʼw.weidí, Ḵakʼweidí, Ḵagweidí (Xutsnoowú): From Ḵákʼw, Basket Bay. This is not the same as ḵákw ‘basket’, but may be a contraction of ḵákwkʼ ‘little basket’ with the diminutive suffix -kʼ(w). WS and JJ have kʼw, but CJ and MS have gw; these variations may be mere simplification or they may be significant. Related to the Deisheetaan, being the Kaaḵáakʼw Hít house group. There is no real division between this clan and the rest of the Deisheetaan, “it’s just a nickname” (BZ). The name refers to a natural stone arch at the head of Basket Bay, where ‘arch’ is identical with ‘basket’, considering the outline of a basket when turned upside down. Previously resident at Basket Bay but moved to Angoon apparently before European arrival on the coast. JM2 heard that, due to a dispute, they left the G̱aanax̱.ádi of either Heinÿaa Ḵwáan or Tʼaḵjik.aan Ḵwáan and settled at Basket Bay with later absorption into the Deisheetaan, and indeed several members resettled in Klawock in the early 20th century while living with the G̱aanax̱.ádi there, but this history is unconfirmed.
      • Xutsnoowú Ḵwáan
        • Kaaḵáakʼw Hít: Basket/Arch House. Named after the natural arch that bridges Cháasʼ Héeni ‘Humpy Creek’ which drains Kóoḵ Áa ‘Pit Lake’ (Kook Lake) at the head of Ḵákʼw (Basket Bay). The meaning of the initial kaa- and why the vowel in ḵáakʼw is long though the name Ḵákʼw is short both remain unexplained; CG’s name Kaalḵáawu probably contains the same kaa-, as do several other names in the clan. (Perhaps from káxʼ ~ káa ‘on top of it’?)
    5. Naachʼuneidí (Xutsnoowú): From Naachʼuhéen, a creek in Whitewater Bay (JJ, WS), owned by the Aanx̱ʼaakhitaan (WS). Linked with the Deisheetaan and the Tuḵÿeidí (JJ, CJ). AH3 (2003) gives this clan also in Jilḵáat Ḵwáan with the spelling of Naachʼooneidí.
  8. Lʼeeneidí group
    1. Lʼeeneidí, Lʼeineidí (Áakʼw, Tʼaḵjik.aan): From ?Téelʼ Héeni ‘Dog Salmon Stream’, location uncertain. JD informed Olson that they are “the Tittlinedih [Teelʼheeneidí] (dog salmon people), the name Tlinedih [Lʼeeneidí] being merely a contraction” (Ol 1967: 107). They are considered part of Áakʼw Ḵwáan but were from Aanshg̱altsóowu (CJ).
      • Áakʼw Ḵwáan
        • G̱aatáa Hít: Trap House (Ol 1967: 11).
        • Téelʼ Hít: Dog Salmon House (Ol 1967: 11).
      • Taḵjik.aan Ḵwáan
        • Téelʼ Hít: Dog Salmon House.
        • Téelʼ Yádi Hit: Dog Salmon Child House. Probably a smaller house built for people moving out of Téelʼ Hít. The word yát ‘child’ is often used as a diminutive as in shanaxwáyi yádi ‘axe’s child; hatchet’, so this is likely to mean “smaller Dog Salmon House”.
    2. Yax̱tehittaan, Yax̱teitaan (Áakʼw): From Yax̱té Hít ’Big Dipper House’. The house name is from Alice Bell in NS notes, WS, CJ, and FD confirm the house and say it is Dog Salmon or Lʼeeneidí. Yax̱té is the Tlingit name for the Big Dipper or Ursa Major constellation. Olson, consulting Charley Rudolph, corroborates the name and meaning but gives no clan information other than “Raven moiety” (Ol 1967: 11).
      • Áakʼw Ḵwáan
        • Yax̱té Hít: Big Dipper House (Ol 1967: 11). Olson notes that “there were also two large houses, unnamed, but affiliated with [Yax̱té Hít]. In addition there were two small houses of the Raven moiety” (Ol 1967: 11). The latter two houses may have been Lʼeeneidí rather than specifically Yax̱tehittaan.
    3. Teelʼhittaan (Heinÿaa): Olson says “the Titlhittan [Teelʼhittaan] had split off from the Klinedih [Lʼeeneidí] of Auk [Áakʼw] because of a quarrel arising from a woman’s adultery. They settled first at Cȧx̣a′nk [Shax̱áankʼ?] on the point opposite the Barrier Islands” (Ol 1967: 106). He gives their crests as “octopus, dog salmon, and raven”; the story of how they obtained the octopus (devilfish) was told by JD to Olson (Ol 1967: 107).
    4. Aanx̱ʼaakhittaan (Xutsnoowú): See the entry for the Aanx̱ʼaakhittaan under the Deisheetaan group.
  9. Lʼuknax̱.ádi group
    1. Lʼuknax̱.ádi, Lʼuknax̱sháa (Sheetʼká, Áakʼw, Xunaa, G̱unaax̱oo, Yaakwdáat): From ?Lʼuknáx̱, a salmon stream just below Klawock that empties into a bay shaped like a halibut hook. Site of the trial of strength between the two chiefs “Kish-ka-ta” (?) and “Duck-toolh” (Duktʼootlʼ) (Em). Note also Lʼugunáx̱, the name for Deep Bay just above Sergius Narrows (CJ); this is not a Lʼuknax̱.ádi site but could be an example of the original Northern Tlingit pronunciation of the above placename (the u in prefixes is regularly dropped in Southern Tlingit), assuming both places had the same name. Often pronounced Tlʼuknax̱.ádi in Yakutat, and written as such by deL.
      • Sheetʼká Ḵwáan
        • Daginaa Hít: Salmon Box House.
        • Ḵuta Hít: Sleep House.
        • Lʼook Hít Tlein: Big Coho House.
        • Lʼook Hít Yádi: Little Coho House.
        • Shgat.aayí Hít: Yakutat Creek House.
        • Taan Hít: Sea Lion House.
        • Xinaa Hít: House at Lower End of Town.
        • Xinaa Hít 2: House at Lower End of Town 2.
        • Xíxchʼi Hít: Frog House.
        • Ÿaaÿ Hít: Whale House.
      • Áakʼw Ḵwáan
        • Lʼook Hít: Coho House.
      • G̱unaax̱oo Ḵwáan
        • Xíxchʼi Hít: Frog House.
      • Yaakwdáat Ḵwáan
        • Shaa Hít: Mountain House. The mountain being referred to here is Mount Fairweather.
        • Daginaa Hít: Far out in the Sea House.
        • Eech Hít: Reef House.
        • Eech Hít 2: Reef House 2. This was located at Situk River rather than in Yakutat, hence the duplicate name. The two still form separate house groups.
    2. Xaas.hittaan (Taantʼá, Tʼaaḵu, Xunaa, Sheetʼká, Yaakwdáat): From Xaas Hít ‘Bison/Cattle House’. The word xaas is interesting; although it is often claimed to come from English and mean ‘cow’, it does not appear to be an English loanword. In fact it may be an indigenous name for bison, possibly borrowed from an Athabaskan language. Bison are now extinct in the inland, but were once found there. Presumably the word was transferred to domestic cattle once these were introduced by Europeans. Xaas.hittaan is part of the Lʼuknax̱.ádi clan (JM, Em).
      • Note: JL gives this under Lʼuknax̱.ádi but his document does not list specific houses. Andy Hope’s list does not give this as a separate clan, instead listing Xaas Hít under G̱aanax̱.ádi in Taantʼá Ḵwáan, under Ḵooskʼeidí for Sheetʼká Ḵwáan, Xunaa Ḵáawu, and G̱unaax̱oo Ḵwáan, under Kooḵhittaan for Áatlein Ḵwáan (JL does not mention this ḵwáan for Xaas.hittaan), and lacking Xaas Hít in any clan for Tʼaaḵu Ḵwáan and Yaakwdáat Ḵwáan. See the entry for Ḵooskʼeidí below.
    3. Tʼaḵdeintaan, Tʼaḵdeinsháa (Sheetʼká, Xunaa): From Tʼaḵdein Hít ‘House toward the Side’. The name comes from the fact that they camped on the side (tʼaaḵ) of an island (BZ, JM), namely on a point called ?Tʼaḵdein (deL), or a sea otter hunting camp on the outer coast beyond Cape Spencer called “Nook-hook-heen” (Em). Derivations of this name from táax̱ʼ ‘snail, slug’ are probably due to confusion with the Tax̱ʼhittaan discussed below. The Tʼaḵdeintaan are a branch of the Lʼuknax̱.ádi (BZ, JM). CJ rejects the feminine form which is used in Inland Tlingit.
      • Sheetʼká Ḵwáan
        • Danakoo Hít: Danakoo House. The meaning of this name is unclear.
      • Xunaa Ḵáawu
        • Tʼaḵdein Hít: Toward the Side House.
        • X̱ʼáakʼw Hít: Freshwater Marked Coho House.
        • X̱ʼáakʼw Hít Yádi: Little Freshwater Marked Coho House.
        • Yéil Hít: Raven House.
        • Yéil Kúdi Hít: Raven’s Nest House.
        • Kʼóox Dísi Hít: Marten Moon House. According to Swanton (Sw 1908: 427), a planet, perhaps Jupiter, and identified as the evening star, was known as “K!uxdîʹsî [Kʼooxdísi]” meaning “marten moon”. This name may be connected to this house, meaning it could also perhaps be translated as “Jupiter house”.
        • Teet Hít: Wave House.
        • Ḵáa Sháayi Hít: Man’s Head House.
    4. Xʼatʼka.aaÿí (Sheetʼká, Xunaa, G̱unaax̱oo): A contracted form of xʼáatʼ ká aaÿí ‘ones on the island’. This island is located in Lituya Bay (Ltu.áa) (Em, deL, JM). Swanton gives its name as ɢᴀłtse·ʼniwa (Sw 1908: 413); CJ confirms this name as G̱altseenawáa but does not connect it with this clan. Part of the Lʼuknax̱.ádi (Sw, deL, BZ, JM). According to CJ this is not a clan name proper but a nickname for part of the Lʼuknax̱.ádi; this is in line with the use of names such as Ḵakʼw.weidí for part of the Deisheetaan, Yax̱tehittaan for part of the Lʼeeneidí, and so forth.
      • Sheetʼká Ḵwáan
        • Kayaashká Hít: Platform House. Compare with the Kayáash Hít of the Kayaashkiditaan (a Wolf clan) from Shtaxʼhéen Ḵwáan. The name may have resulted from the same process.
        • Lʼook Hít: Coho House. Apparently distinct from the two Lʼuknax̱.ádi houses.
      • G̱unaax̱oo Ḵwáan
        • ?
      • Xunaa Ḵáawu
        • ?
    5. Tax̱ʼhittaan (Xunaa): From Tax̱ʼhít ‘Snail House’. This is a contraction of Táax̱ʼ Hít where táax̱ʼ is ‘snail, slug’, and not to the homophonous táax̱ʼ that refers to the first tier above the firepit in traditional houses. Part of the Tʼaḵdeintaan (Sw, Ol).
      • Xunaa Ḵáawu
        • Tax̱ʼ Hít: Snail House.
    6. Kʼooxeeneidí, Kʼooxineidí (Heinÿaa): From kʼóox ‘marten’. Little is available about this clan, although Swanton (Sw 1908: 398) gives it as a Raven clan in Heinÿaa (“K!uxîneʹdî [Kʼooxineidí]”), and lists “K!ûx hît [Kʼóox Hít]” as the sole house of the clan (Sw 1908: 301). It has been placed tentatively in the Lʼuknax̱.ádi group because of the presence of Kʼóox Dísi Hít among the Tʼaḵdeintaan in Xunaa Ḵáawu, and furthermore the Lʼuknax̱.ádi are said to have an origin in Heinÿaa Ḵwáan. This clan may in fact be unrelated to the Lʼuknax̱.ádi, however. The name includes an enigmatic -een or -in which is unclear, but could be from héen ‘river’ and thus the name might be from an earlier Kʼóox-héeni-.ádi ‘ones of Marten River’.
      • Heinÿaa Ḵwáan
        • Kʼóox Hít: Marten House
  10. Ḵooskʼeidí group
    1. Ḵooskʼeidí (Sheetʼká, Xunaa, G̱unaax̱oo, Yaakwdaat, G̱alyáx̱): De Laguna gives the name as “Kosk̓edi [Kooskʼeidí]” (deL 1972: 220) but this is certainly a mishearing given the Eyak pronunciation with q, hence Tlingit Ḵooskʼeidí (deL often confused velars and uvulars). De Laguna follows Swanton in linking this with ?Gusʼeix̱, a town on the Akwe River (deL 1972: 220), but this derivation does not make sense phonologically. Apparently a branch of the Lʼuknax̱.ádi (Em, Sw 1908: 413). Emmons apparently has this listed as two clans, not realizing that they are the same. He says that the “Kuse-ka-tee” or “Kuse-ka-de(e)” are a branch of the Lʼuknax̱.ádi (specifically of the Xaas.hittaan) that built a house at Shg̱aadaaÿihéen, but elsewhere he says that the “Ku-wiske-ka-de” are a branch of the Shg̱aadaaÿihin.aaÿí that went to Red Fish Bay on Peril Strait. Emmons says that they are also known as the “Tik-ka-de” from their home in a glacial bay above Cape Spencer. Eyak qu·skʼe·d(yu·) /qʰuːskʼeːt(juː)/ (MK).
      • Sheetʼká Ḵwáan
        • Xaas Hít: Bison/Cattle House. See the entry for Xaas.hittaan above.
      • Xunaa Ḵáawu
        • Xaas Hít: Bison/Cattle House. See the entry for Xaas.hittaan above.
      • G̱unaax̱oo Ḵwáan
        • Xaas Hít: Bison/Cattle House. See the entry for Xaas.hittaan above.
    2. Shg̱aadaaÿihin.aaÿí: From Shg̱aadaaÿihéen (Em, CJ), a stream that drains Great Plateau Glacier (?, not in Orth) north of Mount Fairweather on the Gulf Coast (Em), where the Ḵooskʼeidí lived (CJ). Another name for the Ḵooskʼeidí (CJ).
  11. Ahtna-descended clans
    1. Kwáashkʼ(i) Ḵwáan, Kwáashkʼ(i)sháa (Yaakwdáat, G̱alyáx̱): Kwáashkʼ is the name of a creek (CJ, Sw 1908: 413) from Eyak kwa·škʼ /kʰʷaːʃkʼ/ ‘humpback salmon’ (deL, MK). Same as the Kʼinéix̱ Ḵwáan (deL), but Emmons says their old name was “Ta-hane-kwan” when they lived in their old home on the upper Copper River (presumably something like ?Ldax̱éin Ḵwáan from Ahtna Taghael(den) /tʰaɣæl(tɛn)/, Taral). See also ?Stax̱.ádi below. The story of this clan’s migration was recorded in Tlingit by Swanton from a Yakutat man named “Q!âʹdustin [Ḵʼáawdusteen? X̱ʼáawdusteen?]” who was living in Sitka at the time; the story was published in Swanton’s Tlingit Myths and Texts (Sw 1909: 347–368).
      • Yaakwdáat Ḵwáan
        • Aanyuwaa Hít: In Front of Town House.
        • Tsiskʼw Hít: Owl House.
        • Dís Hít: Moon House.
        • Yéil Sʼaag̱í Hít: Raven’s Bones House.
        • Noow Hít: Fort House.
        • Shaa Hít: Mountain House. The mountain being referred to is Mount Saint Elias, Ÿasʼéitʼaa Shaa.
    2. Kʼinéix̱ Ḵwáan: A ceremonial name of the Kwáashkʼi Ḵwáan (deL). Kʼinéix̱ Ḵwáan is probably a modified borrowing from an Athabaskan word ending in *-x̣(w)tʼe·ne */-χ⁽ʷ⁾tʼeːne/ ‘person or people of’, where the *-tʼe·ne part was replaced with the Tlingit term ḵwáan. There are two comparable Athabaskan words. One is Denaʼina Kʼenahtʼana /kʼenahtʼana/ ‘Knik Arm People’ where -htʼana is ‘people of’ and the stem *kʼena (or *kʼenay?) is apparently also the source of the word “Kenai” borrowed into English via Russian. This is perhaps the most likely source since Denaʼina a corresponds to general Athabaskan which would be borrowed into Tlingit as ei. The other possible source is the prehistoric Ahtna pronunciation of *Kʼetnaʼ /kʼɛtnaʔ/ (now Cʼetnaʼ /cʼɛtnaʔ/ or Atna’ /ʔatnaʔ/?), the name for the Copper River. As de Laguna surmises, it may be that *kʼe- meant ‘belonging to something’ (probably referring to a game animal such as moose), and -(t)naʼ means ‘river’; compare the Tanana placename Chʼenoʼ /tʃʼenɔʔ/ ‘Chena River’ with the same analysis. With this Ahtna source there is a problem since we would expect Tlingit *kʼi(t)náa(x̱) instead.
    3. ?Stax̱.ádi or ?Sdax̱.ádi (Yaakwdáat): People of the eastern branch of the Ahrnklin River (Aantlein), none left surviving today (deL). It is not certain if this is Stax̱.ádi (WS) or Sdax̱.ádi (CJ). Older sources do not distinguish clearly between these two consonant clusters. An Ahtna placename Ldax̱éin has been recorded from Yakutat (deL, MK, NS, JL), and compare Emmons’s form “Ta-hane-kwan” under Kwáashkʼi Ḵwáan above. This placename Ldax̱éin may be from Ahtna Staghael (Beneʼ) /staɣæl (bɛnɛʔ)/, Strelna (Lake), which Tlingits would interpret phonetically as Stax̱éin and perhaps later somehow changed to Ldax̱éin. This could be reanalyzed as Stax̱héen, i.e. ‘Stax̱ River’, and hence the clan name Stax̱.ádi. But note the unconfirmed placename Stax̱eya ‘east branch of the Ahrnklin’ (deL 1972: 220–221).
  12. Unknown clans
    1. Kooÿu.eidí, Kooÿeidí (Kooÿu): From Kooÿú, the same as the name of the ḵwáan. Almost nothing is known about this clan other than its name and that it was probably a Raven clan. Swanton says (Sw 1908: 410):
      About the Kuỵeʹdî [Kooÿeidí] nothing of consequence was learned...
      The source of the form Kooÿu.eidí is not clear, but it is a plausible expansion of the form given by Swanton. Swanton lists “Xîk hît [Xík hít]” as the sole house (Sw 1908: 401), but his gloss “puffin house” implies X̱ík Hít instead, thus a typo or a mishearing of which is not uncommon for Swanton. The lack of such a house name in any other clan, and the general lack of knowledge about this clan makes it impossible to connect it with any other Tlingit groups. AH3 (2003) also lists Ḵutx̱ayanaháa Hít.
      • Kooÿu Ḵwáan
        • X̱ík Hít: Puffin House.
        • Ḵutx̱ayanaháa Hít: Star House.
    2. Tooḵa.ádi (Tʼaaḵu): Nothing is known about this clan other than that it is listed by AH3 (2003).
    3. Watineidí (Sheetʼká): Nothing is known about this clan other than that it is listed by AH3 (2003).

Wolf clans

The Southern Tlingit maintain a distinction between the Wolf moiety (those clans in this section) and the Eagles, i.e. the Neix̱.ádi, who are outside both Raven and Wolf moieties and are treated separately in the next section. The Northern Tlingit, however, tend to use the term Eagle to refer to what is here termed the Wolf moiety, probably since the Neix̱.ádi were confined largely to the Southern area, and since Eagle is a common crest for clans in the Wolf moiety. Swanton notes that its use among the Northern Tlingit may be from Haida influence, “especially since the corresponding Haida phratry is likewise Eagle, and many Haida seem to have married in Sitka.” (Sw 1908: 415). Whether or not the Haida parallel influenced the replacement of Wolf by Eagle among the Northern Tlingit, it is clear that there is an agreeable avian symmetry with the two as primary crests for whole moieties. Swanton cites Kadishaan as saying that the Eagle “might have been adopted by them after some trouble with the Nēxᴀʹdî [Neix̱.ádi]” which is certainly a plausible hypothesis but as Swanton says “it is by no means certain that this is the case” (Sw 1908: 415), and indeed there is no oral history which attests to such a conflict.

Swanton says “according to a Sitka interpreter, the Eagle [= Wolf] people were called Na [Naa] (nation) or Cêngoqedîʹna [Shangukeidinaa], but there was no one name for all the Ravens, they being one simply in marriage laws, emblems, and in some other respects.” (Sw 1908: 407). Either Swanton or his interpreter must be confused since the name Laaÿineidí is clearly a term for the entire Raven side, and the word naa can be applied to any clan or a non-Tlingit nation. In a footnote Swanton adds “This is evidently taken from the name of a clan which the writer has elsewhere called Cᴀnkukeʹdi [Shangukeidí]. The reason for applying this name to the entire phratry is not apparent. Possibly the interpreter was mistaken.” (Sw 1908: 407). Certainly some others have used Shangukeidí as a cover term for all Wolf clans, although it is also clear that this is not a widespread usage. Note also that the Wanwaasháa, who are also connected with Eagle according to deL, can be used as a general term for women of Wolf clans.

Swanton cites “Katishan [Kadishaan], chief of the Kāsq!agueʹdî [Kaasx̱ʼagweidí] at Wrangell” as saying that “all of the Wolf clans used to be denominated S!īʹtqoedî [Sʼeetḵweidí] (not to be confused with the S!īt!qoeʹdî [Sʼeetʼḵweidí] of Sumdum) and all of the Raven clans G̣onᴀtqᴀnāʹỵî [G̱uneitkanaaÿí], the latter of which expressions seems to be identical with the word applied by an individual to those of the opposite phratry.” (Sw 1908: 407). Indeed, the term g̱uneitkanaaÿí simply means ‘opposite clan from one’s own’ (from g̱una-.át-ká-naa-ÿí ‘other-thing-atop-clan-poss.’), often translated into English as just “opposites”. This use of Sʼeetḵweidí is not documented from anyone else, and hence does not seem to be in use.

G̱ooch.ádi ‘Wolf People’ is a less ambiguous and reasonable possibility for naming the entire moiety, but this is not traditional. Chʼaakʼ.ádi ‘Eagle people’ would tend to imply the Neix̱.ádi (see below) and not the Wolf side, similar to how Xixchʼ.ádi is used sometimes for the Kiks.ádi as described above.

  1. Shangukeidí group
    1. Shangukeidí, Shangukasháa, Shankweidí (Taantʼá, Heinÿaa, Ḵéex̱ʼ, Jilḵoot, G̱unaax̱oo): Apparently the name is related to Sháandaa, the name of Fish Egg Island near Craig (deL, FH). Shaanséet, the name for Craig, appears to be related as well. According to Katishan they took their name from an island called ?Sháanʼ (Sw), apparently then both Sháandaa and Shaanséet are derived from this unverified form (but why does the Shaan in Shaanséet have low tone when the Sháan in Sháandaa has high tone?). A confusingly similar name is Shinséet ‘Bailer Pass’ (sheen ‘bailer’) which is on the west side of Lemesurier Point, but this place is unrelated. Emmons says instead that the name Shangukeidí is from “Shenk”, a small island in the Bay of Pines (what island?). JL recorded Shánkw as “a place near Craig” from GD). In any case, it looks like -guká has been added to the placename; compare the placename Kaduḵguká (FW). This could be composed of -gu ‘base’ and –ká ‘horizontal surface’, but it is unclear. According to Swanton, Shangukeidí Naa is used as general term for the Wolf moiety, and this seems to be true to some extent but is not universal.
      • Heinÿaa Ḵwáan
        • G̱unakadeit Hít: Sea Monster House.
        • Xóots Hít: Brown Bear House.
      • Tʼaḵjik.aan Ḵwáan
        • Chʼáakʼ Hít: Eagle House.
        • G̱ooch Hít: Wolf House.
        • Tsískʼw Hít: Great Horned Owl House.
        • Xʼátgu Hít: Dogfish House.
      • Ḵéex̱ʼ Ḵwáan
        • Ḵóok Hít: Box House.
      • Jilḵoot Ḵwáan
        • Kawdliÿaaÿi Hít: Lowered (from the Sun) House.
      • G̱unax̱oo Ḵwáan
        • ?
    2. Ḵaax̱ʼoos.hittaan (Heinÿaa): From Ḵaax̱ʼoos Hít ‘Man’s-Foot House’, a branch of the Shangukeidí (Em, Sw, Ol). Although unattested, the form Ḵaax̱ʼus.hittaan with a short vowel in “foot” is probably also acceptable, since this is a typical form of the word in compounds. For the use of feet in house names, compare the Chʼáakʼ X̱ʼoosí Hít ‘Eagle’s Foot House’ of the Neix̱.ádi. According to JD via Olson, the Ḵaax̱ʼoos.hittaan married one of their daughters to a Haida war party and they became half Haida, inheriting excellent canoe-building skills from them (Ol 1967: 109); the Haida in question are implied to have come from Howkan but this is unclear.
      • Heinÿaa Ḵwáan
        • Ḵaa X̱ʼoos Hít: Person’s Foot House.
        • Tsískʼw Hít: Great Horned Owl House.
    3. ?Lḵuweidí, ?Lḵwaÿeidí (Heinÿaa): Part of the Shangukeidí (Sw). Swanton gives “łqoaÿe·ʹdi [?Lḵwaÿeidí]”; the form Lḵuweidí is from WS. The meaning is unclear, but the initial l- is probably a negative particle, as in l.uljíni ‘vest’ but literally ‘no-arm’.
      • Heinÿaa Ḵwáan
        • ?
    4. Dag̱isdinaa (Jilḵáat, G̱unaax̱oo, Yaakwdáat): From Daḵséet ‘Back Channel’, derived from daaḵ-séet ‘inlandward-channel’; this is the channel separating Wrangell Island from the mainland (Em, Sw). It is labelled “Blake Channel” on charts but usually called “Back Channel” locally (possibly a direct translation from Tlingit). The Tlingit name for the waterway includes Eastern Passage and The Narrows which are separately named in English. Settlements here existed at Mill Creek and Berg Bay among others. The Dag̱isdinaa are a branch of the Shangukeidí (deL, MS), but Swanton says that one person told him they were part of the Naasdeidí (Sw 1908: 413).
      • Jilḵáat Ḵwáan
        • Xeitl Hít: Thunderbird House.
        • Shisʼg̱i Hít: Sapling House.
      • G̱unaax̱oo Ḵwáan
        • ?
      • Yaakwdáat Ḵwáan
        • Xeitl Hít: Thunderbird House.
  2. Teiḵweidí group
    1. Teiḵweidí, Teiḵwsháa (Taantʼá, Saanÿaa, Xutsnoowú, Sheetʼká, Yaakwdáat): From ?Teiḵw, an island off the north end of Prince of Wales Island (Sw 1908: 408) or off the southwest shore of the same island (deL). According to Swanton’s Haida informants, the Teiḵweidí “were their chief opponents at the time when [the Haida] invaded Alaska and [the Teiḵweidí] subsequently fled to the mainland [from Prince of Wales Island]. That the territory in Alaska now occupied by the Kaigani Haida was formerly Tlingit is a well-known fact, and is attested by all of the names of their towns [which are Tlingit].” (Sw 1908: 408). Also “it would seem that the Teʹqoedî [Teiḵweidí] constituted a large part of the population of Prince of Wales Island and moved to Tongas and Sanya at the time when the Haida immigration took place, whether that happened peaceably or otherwise. Part of them are now among the Hutsnuwu [Xutsnoowú] people and part at Yakutat.” (Sw 1908: 409). In Eyak their name is de·qe·d(yu·) /teːqʰeːt(juː)/ (MK).
      • Taantʼá Ḵwáan
        • Kaatsʼ Hít: House of Kaatsʼ (Sw 1908: 400, Ol 1967: 11). Olson says (Ol 1967: 11):
          Kats [Kaatsʼ] was the man who married a bear. A bear was carved on the planks or post over the door and a carved bear was placed at each end of the smoke hole. These last were called Gankȧhuttsi [ganká xóodzi] (smoke hole bears) and were a special property of this house.
        • Shaanáx̱ Hít: Valley House (Sw 1908: 400, Ol 1967: 10). Note that Olson mistakenly lists this as “Ganaxhĭt”, where the “G” is apparently a typo for his usual “C” meaning sh. He says that (Ol 1967: 10):
          This house derived from Katshit [Kaatsʼ Hít]. Its special possession was kuwixu′tsih [?? xóodzi] (under-water bear), a mythical creature like a bear, but with two fins like killer whale dorsal fins.
          The actual Tlingit word indicated by Olson’s kuwi is not clear, though xóots means ‘brown bear’.
        • Xóots Hít: Brown Bear House (Sw 1908: 400, Ol 1967: 10). Olson notes that “its special feature was a bear carved on the righthand corner post” (Ol 1967: 10).
        • Xeitl Hít: Thunderbird House (Ol 1967: 10). According to Olson, “a huge painting of the Thunderbird was on the house front” (Ol 1967: 10).
        • Wandaa Hít: Around the Edge House (Sw 1908: 400). Swanton describes this as (Sw 1908: 400):
          wā′ndᴀ house, wā′ndᴀ being the name of an ornamental cloak worn at dances. It was trimmed with eagle skins along the sides
          The word wán means ‘outer edge’, and daa is ‘around’, so this name apparently refers to the eagle skin trimming around the edge of the cloak.
      • Saanÿaa Ḵwáan
        • Xóots Hít: Brown Bear House (HD).
        • Litká Hít: Ridge House (HD).
        • Xóots Ḵoowu Hít: Brown Bear’s Den House.
        • Kaatsʼ Hít: House of Kaatsʼ (see above).
        • G̱ooch Hít: Wolf House.
      • Xutsnoowú Ḵwáan
        • Shaanáx̱ Hít: Valley House.
        • Xóots Hít: Brown Bear House.
      • Sheetʼká Ḵwáan
        • ?
      • Yaakwdáat Ḵwáan
        • Xeitl Hít: Thunderbird House.
        • Gijook Hít: Golden Eagle House.
        • Gaaw Hít: Drum House.
        • Ḵʼatx̱aan Hít: Homosexual (‘Coward’, ‘Man who Acted Like a Woman’) House.
        • Tóosʼ Hít: Shark House.
        • Xóots Hít: Brown Bear House.
    2. Aanshookahittaan (Heinÿaa): A branch of the Teiḵweidí according to Ol. The name is obviously from the house name Aanshooka Hít, which is aan-shú-ká ‘town-end-front’.
      • Heinÿaa Ḵwáan
        • Aanshooka Hít: Front of Town House.
    3. Gaawhittaan (Yaakwdáat): From Gaaw Hít ‘Drum House’. A branch of the Teiḵweidí from Dry Bay to Ahrnklin River and Yakutat (deL).
      • Yaakwdáat Ḵwáan
        • Gaaw Hít: Drum House (same as the Teiḵweidí house listed in Yakutat above).
    4. Laax̱aaÿík Teiḵweidí (Yaakwdáat): A Yakutat branch of the Teiḵweidí (deL). See the Teiḵweidí above.
    5. Wasʼineidí (Ḵéex̱ʼ): From Wasʼhéeni, a stream (perhaps Cathedral Falls Creek?) at the head of Hamilton Bay (JJ, GD). The sound of the name is misleading. According to Sw, Em, and JM it means ‘louse stream’ and so is actually a contraction of wéisʼ héeni. This is also seen in forms like téix̱ʼ ‘boiled food’ and tex̱héeni or tax̱héeni ‘broth from boiled food’. To some people unaware of the connection with wéisʼ ‘louse’, the name instead sounds like it is from wásʼ ‘bush’. A branch of the Teiḵweidí (JM).
      • Ḵéex̱ʼ Ḵwáan
        • Tax̱ʼ Hít: Tier (táax̱ʼ) House.
    6. Lʼux̱ʼeidí (Yaakwdáat): Apparently from lʼóox̱ʼ ‘herring spawn in water’. De Laguna glosses this as “Muddy Water People” (deL 1972: 221), probably not knowing the meaning of lʼóox̱ʼ. Harrington does as well according to deL (1972: 221). CJ thinks that they may be connected with the Teiḵweidí, and De Laguna (1972: 221) concurs:
      They are sometimes equated with the Tłax̣ayɩk-Teqwedi [Laax̱aaÿík Teiḵweidí], or even with the G̣ałyɩx̣-Kagwantan [G̱alyáx̱ Kaagwaantaan], although one person said that the latter “just called themselves Łʼux̣̓edi”.
      This group is said to have originally been Eyak and to have been the original owners of Yakutat (deL 1972: 221). Swanton (Sw 1909: 352, 355–356; deL 1972: 221) however has the “ʟ!uq!oeʹdî [Lʼux̱ʼeidí]” along with the “Kos!ēdî [Ḵooskʼeidí]” as being Athabaskans who migrated to Yakutat and then left again (?) after they sold Kwáashkʼ.
      • Yaakwdáat Ḵwáan
        • ?
  3. Naanÿaa.aaÿí (Stikine clans) group
    Swanton says “All of the Wolf families in this place [Wrangell], except the Foam People referred to, appear to belong to one group [Naanÿaa.aaÿí, Sʼiknax̱.ádi, Kayaashkiditaan, ?X̱ookʼeidí], and among them the most important, as well of Wrangell as of this phratry, were the Naanÿaa.aaÿí. Although all of these clans are said formerly to have come from the Tsimshian coast, the more immediate migration was southward from Taku.” (Sw 1908: 411) The connection between Naanÿaa.aaÿi, Sʼiknax̱.ádi, and Kayaashkiditaan is confirmed by FD.
    1. Naanÿaa.aaÿí, Naanaa.aaÿí (Shtaxʼhéen): From naa-niÿaa ‘upriver/north-direction’ + aa ‘ones’ + -ÿí ‘possessive’, thus ‘Ones from the Upriver/North Direction’. MS says the clan is related to the Daḵlʼaweidí, and de Laguna notes that the Naanÿaa.aaÿí of Wrangell are sometimes called Daḵlʼaweidí. The river in question is almost universally held to be the Stikine River (see Shtaxʼhéen Ḵwáan above for the name), with numerous placenames along the river mentioned in migration histories. Sometimes called the “Killerwhale People” in English due to the clan’s extensive use of the Killerwhale as a crest. The famous Shéiksh Hídi ‘Chief Shakes’s House’ is not a traditional house group but is instead a more recent name for the house on Shakes Island in Wrangell Harbor which was probably called Hít Tlein originally.
      • Shtaxʼhéen Ḵwáan
        • Xʼátgu Hít: Dogfish House.
        • Xʼátgu Naasí Hít: Dogfish Intestines House.
        • Ḵóok Hít: Box House.
        • Hít Tlein: Big House.
        • Tatóok Hít: Cave House.
        • Chéx̱ʼi Hít: Shadow House.
        • Aanshooká Hít: End of Town House.
    2. Sʼiknax̱.ádi (Shtaxʼhéen): From Sʼiknáx̱, Limestone Inlet on Stephens Passage (Em, Sw). Swanton’s spelling “Sʼi·ʹnᴀx̣ [Sʼeenáx̱]” is certainly a misprint, cf. the clan name “Sʼi·knᴀx̣ᴀʹdi [Sʼiknax̱.ádi]” (Sw 1908: 399). Olson writes the placename as “Sĭknáx [Siknáx]” and the clan name as “Sĭknaxȧ′ddi [Siknaxádi]” (Ol 1967: 32), his source was Charlie Jones (CJ2) but Olson was a poor transcriber. WT, FD, CD, and HD all independently pronounce the name as Sʼiknax̱.ádi. A branch of the Naanÿaa.aaÿí (Sw, Ol, WT, FD, CD). According to Olson’s information from Charlie Jones, the Sʼiknax̱.ádi went to Sʼiknáx̱ to get whetstones and tarried there too long so they were left behind by the rest of the Naanÿaa.aaÿí. The name may contain sʼeek ‘black bear’, and -náx̱ is a common ending of placenames that seems to refer to a bay (cf. G̱aanáx̱). Other possible roots that might be related to sʼik- on the basis of phonological similarity are sʼikw ‘crisp’, sʼix(w) ‘sour, rotten’, tsʼik ‘whine, fuss’, or tsʼix ‘damp’; a connection with sʼaaḵ ‘bone’ is more remote but possible given the term sʼig̱eeḵáawu ‘ghost’ which appears as sʼigeeḵáawu among some Inland Tlingit speakers. The description as ‘grindstone’ seems to be a mistake by Olson for ‘limestone’, which is the name of the bay in English. The name in Tlingit seemingly has nothing to do with limestone which is instead wéinaa (from wu ‘pale’, for face powder), nor with a grindstone which is g̱ílʼaa (from g̱ilʼ ‘sharpen’) or whetstone yayéinaa (cf. shayéin ‘nail’). CD offers a place called Sʼiknáx̱ on the Stikine River, but the location is uncertain. The clan name is sometimes written as “Sikʼnax̱.ádi” but this is certainly incorrect given the lack of agreement with local sources; probably it is either a metathesis arising among people living outside of the Shtaxʼheen Ḵwáan or due to an incorrect transcription.
      • Shtaxʼhéen Ḵwáan
        • X̱ʼaan Hít: Fire House. Also sometimes ‘Red Clay House’ in English, so that this probably refers to the color red and not specifically to fire.
        • Ankʼw Hít: Tsimshian Cane House. The name is the name of a cane that was taken from Coast Tsimshians in war at the same time as the name Weishéiksh (Chief Shakes). Probably not related to the Tlingit epithet ánkʼw ‘spoiled brat’, though this is a potential source of humourous teasing.
    3. Kayaashkiditaan, Kayaashkahiditaan, Kayaashkahittaan (Shtaxʼhéen): From Kaayáash Ká Hít ‘House on a Platform’. Emmons gives Kayáash as a place on the lower Stikine and translates the name as “People of the house with a high foundation, or shelf people”. However, FD relates that a Naanÿaa.aaÿí (or perhaps Sʼiknax̱.ádi) house was so full that people were sleeping on platforms built in the rafters, i.e. “in an attic”. These were called kayáash in Tlingit, so when a new house was built the people who had been sleeping in the attic moved into the new house and named it in memory of their plight, Kaayáash Ká Hít (contracted as Kaayaashkahít). Swanton had mixed information on the mother clan of the Kaayaashkiditaan: “According to one informant, the Kayaashkiditaan were part of the ?X̱ookʼeidí, according to others, of the Naanÿaa.aaÿí.” (Sw 1908: 411). FD states repeatedly that the Naanÿaa.aaÿí, Sʼiknax̱.ádi, and Kayaashkiditaan are all the same basic clan, so if ?X̱ookʼeidí is included then there may be no real disagreement between Swanton’s sources. Swanton gives “Kaya·ʹckideta·n” which is confirmed by WS and FD as Kayaashkiditaan. CJ gives the uncontracted form as Kayaashkahiditaan, and Emmons records the form Kayaashkahittaan without the epenthetic vowel.
      • Shtaxʼhéen Ḵwáan
        • Kayaashká Hít: Platform House.
        • Kéet Hít: Killerwhale House.
      • Sʼawdáan Ḵwáan
    4. X̱ookʼeidí (Shtaxʼhéen): From “X̣o·qʼ”, a place just south of Wrangell (Sw 1908: 411). This name appears to be the same as X̱ookʼ “Leader Bay (near Wrangell)” (NS notes, labelled “Mrs. Willard”). (Swanton was unreliable in transcribing sounds such as x̱ʼ, , ḵʼ, etc.)
      • Shtaxʼhéen Ḵwáan
        • Shdeen Hít: Steel House.
        • Aandaa Óonaa Hít: Cannon House.
    5. Sʼeetʼḵweidí (Sʼawdáan, Tʼaaḵu, Deisleen): From Sʼeetʼḵú, Point Snettisham (GD), a place near Sumdum (Sw). Swanton says this name may be derived from a variety of whale named sʼeetʼ. CJ says it means ‘young sharks’, but JL has it elsewere as sʼéetʼ meaning ‘humpback whale’. CJ says this is Shxʼatḵwáan (Stikine), and is the same as Naanÿaa.aaÿí. According to FS, this is the original (and more correct) name for the Deisleen Daḵlʼaweidí. David Stuteen (DS) says that there was a Kéet Hít in Sumdum as well, but it may have been a Kayaashkiditaan house rather than a Sʼeetʼḵweidí house.
      • Sʼawdáan Ḵwáan
        • Sitʼ Hít: Glacier House.
        • Sʼeek Hít: Black Bear House.
        • Kéet Hít: Killerwhale House (DS).
      • Tʼaaḵu Ḵwáan
        • ?
      • Desleen Ḵwáan
        • ?
    6. X̱eel Ḵwáan, X̱eil Ḵwáan (Shtaxʼhéen): Originally a Saanÿaa clan (Em), “have moved to Wrangell only in recent years” (Sw). Swanton says the “Hehl (Xēł qoan [X̱eil Ḵwáan]), now at Wrangell, once formed an independent group on Revillagigedo island” (Sw 1908: 396). From X̱eel or X̱eil ‘Foam’, a placename. According to Emmons (deL) this is the Chickamin River in eastern Behm Canal, but GD says this is Smeaton Bay, also eastern Behm Canal. HD confirms that X̱eel is in fact Chickamin River, and Smeaton Bay is instead X̱án. The form X̱eil is Northern Tlingit, with the usual lowering of ee to ei because of the uvular , compare Southern g̱eey vs. Northern g̱eiy ‘bay’ with the same lowering. Given their origin in Saanÿaa country, and since Chickamin River is owned by the Teiḵweidí, this clan may have originally split from the Teiḵweidí and allied with the Naanÿaa.aaÿí after being in Wrangell for some time.
      • Shtaxʼhéen Ḵwáan
        • ?
  4. Daḵlʼaweidí group
    1. Daḵlʼaweidí, Daḵlʼawsháa, Daḵlʼasháa (Taantʼá, Xutsnoowú, Jilḵáat, Áatlein, Taagish, Deisleen): No placename has been attested as a source, but there is general agreement that this comes from dáaḵ lʼéiw ‘inland sandbar’. These people were either Athabaskans or connected with them (CJ); Emmons says that they are from the Tahltan. Swanton has the name as “Dᴀqʟ!aweʹdî” with his usual confusion of and tlʼ (Sw 1908: 398).
      • Taantʼá Ḵwáan
        • Kéet Hít: Killerwhale House (Sw 1908: 400, Ol 1967: 10). Olson says that “its special feature was a carved killer whale at either end of the smoke hole” (Ol 1967: 10).
        • G̱ooch Hít: Wolf House (Ol 1967: 10). According to Olson, “the two rear posts had wolf carvings” (Ol 1967: 10).
        • Ÿasku Hít: Wasgo? House (Ol 1967: 10). Olson was told that “Gasko [Ÿasku] is the name of an island, probably Long Island, to the west of Prince of Wales Island. The name probably reflects the fact that this area was Tantakwan [Taantʼá Ḵwáan] before the Haida moved into Alaska” (Ol 1967: 10). No such name has been found for an island, however this is suspiciously similar to the Haida mythical sea wolf called Wasgo. The Haida name for Long Island is G̱waadúu Gwaay, with uncertain meaning, so that the G̱waadúu part may have been borrowed from Tlingit ?G̱waadóo, but this is still not similar enough to “Gasko” or Ÿasku to be equated.
        • Kóon Hít: Flicker (Woodpecker) House (Sw 1908: 400).
      • Xutsnoowú Ḵwáan
        • Kéet Hít: Killerwhale House.
        • Yaa Ayanasnaḵ Kéet Hít: Killerwhale Chasing after It House. The ‘it’ being chased is a seal.
        • Kéet Oox̱ú Hít: Killerwhale Tooth House.
      • Jilḵáat Ḵwáan
        • Chʼeet Hít: Murrelet House.
        • Tleilu Hít: Moth House.
        • Kéet Gooshí Hít: Killerwhale Dorsal Fin House.
        • Kéet Ḵwáani Hít: Killerwhale People House.
        • Kéet Lʼootʼí Hít: Killerwhale Tongue House.
        • Kéet Déx̱ʼi Hít: Killerwhale Backbone House.
      • Áatlein Ḵwáan
        • ?
      • Deisleen Ḵwáan
        • ?
      • Taagish Ḵwáan
        • Kéet Hit: Killerwhale House.
    2. Tsaagweidí (Ḵéex̱ʼ): From Tsaagwáa, Hood bay (JJ, BZ, GD, Sw). Formerly also Xutsnoowú Ḵwáan. A branch of the Daḵlʼaweidí (Sw).
      • Ḵéex̱ʼ Ḵwáan
        • Aan Yakawlitseix̱i Hít: House that Anchored the Village.
        • Tóosʼ Hít: Shark House.
        • X̱aay Hít: Yellow-cedar House.
    3. ?Tagooneidí, ?Taguneidí, ?Taaguneidí (Xutsnoowú): No placename has been attested as a source, and the exact pronunciation is in question here. Both the first two are recorded from GD at different times, and the first also from JJ, and the third two from FH who wasn’t sure about the pronunciation. Part of the Daḵlʼaweidí (GD). Some of the Xutsnoowú Deisheetaan are Tagooneidí Yátxʼi (JJ).
      • Xutsnoowú Ḵwáan
        • ?
    4. Neis.ádi, Nees.ádi, Neis.ádi Sháa (Ḵéex̱ʼ): Emmons gives “the people who left their own tribe” which is probably a comment by his informant rather than a translation. Said to have come down the Stikine River from among the Athabaskans (Tahltan?) (Sw). CJ confirms this, saying they are related to the Daḵlʼaweidí.
      • Ḵéex̱ʼ Ḵwáan
        • Kéet Gooshí Hít: Killerwhale Dorsal Fin House.
    5. Naasdeidí, Naasteidí (Heinÿaa, Kooÿu): From Naas, the Nass River (Sw, Em), which is Tlingit for ‘guts, intestines’ and refers to its wealth in food. The name of the clan was confirmed by FH who was sure it was Naasdeidí and not Naasteidí, hence perhaps a contraction of ?Naasdaa.ádi ‘people around the Nass’. Swanton says that the Naasdeidí are “often spoken of as if they were one people with” the Naanÿaa.aaÿí and Kaagwaantaan, but that they share Kóon Hít ‘Flicker House’ with the Daḵlʼaweidí.
      • Heinÿaa Ḵwáan
        • ?
      • Kooÿu Ḵwáan
        • Chʼeet Hít: Murrelet House.
        • Kóon Hít: Flicker (Woodpecker) House.
        • Deikeenoow Hít: Far Out Fort House.
  5. Xakwnoowkeidí group
    1. Xakwnoowkeidí (—): From Xakwnoowú above Strawberry Point (?) (CJ, not in Orth). In a story about Ḵaakeixʼwtí we find a reference to the “xᴀkᴀnu·ʹkedi” (?Xakanoowkeidí) from “xᴀkᴀnuwu·ʹ” (?Xakanoowú); this is apparently the same group (Sw 1909: 321.1, 397.35). The Xakwnoowkeidí clan is the parent clan of the Kaagwaantaan, Wooshkeetaan, and Chookaneidí clans (EH, CJ). It apparently no longer exists under the original name. “Tradition localizes the first of these [Kaagwaantaan, Katakw.ádi, Chookaneidí group] very strongly about Icy Strait, especially upon the peninsula between Lynn Canal and Glacier Bay” (Sw 1908: 412).
    2. Tʼikanaa (—): Apparently from tʼikáa naa ‘Pacific-side nation’, with the same tʼikáa as in Sheetʼká. Swanton gives this as the “Tʼikᴀna tribe of the xᴀkᴀnu·ʹkedi” (Sw 1909: 397.35). FH said she has heard GD mention this name. Could these have originally been a non-Tlingit people? Compare Deikeenaa ‘Haida’, G̱unanaa ‘Athabaskan’, and Wut.shaninaa ‘Old/Gray-haired People’ (above). The use of -naa is unusual in clan names, but contrast Dag̱isdinaa.
    3. Wooshkeetaan, Nooshkeetaan, Wooshkeettaan (Áakʼw, Xutsnoowú, Xunaa, Sheetʼká): The first variant of the name is the most common. The form with n is only found in Northern Tlingit, the last form is Southern Tlingit. The fact that there are variants of this name with initial n and initial w makes it difficult to assign a definite source. Emmons says that Nooshkeetaan is from “Noo-shuck-ah-hit-ton” (?Noowshakahittaan); Swanton gives Wooshkeetaan as “people with houses on top of one another”, hence apparently from ?Woosh(sha)kee Hít or ?Woosh(sha)kanít. CJ gies Wooshkeekaadé Hít ‘houses abutting on each other’ as the source, with the explanation that a second house was built as an add-on to the original house when it became too crowded (cf. Kayaashkiditaan below). There are two main problems here, whether the first syllable is from noow (sha-) ‘fort (atop-)’ or from woosh (sha-) ‘each other (atop-)’, and whether the second syllable is from ka-hít or from kee-hít (the Southern form seems to favor the latter hypothesis). Swanton says “An old man at Sitka seemed to think that the Wooshkeetaan had come from Kaxʼnoowú along with the Kaagwaantaan and other Eagle clans, but the fact that they possess the same principal crest as the Daḵlʼaweidí, the killer whale, suggests an affinity with that clan.” (Sw 1908: 412).
      • Áakʼw Ḵwáan
        • G̱unakadeit Hít: Sea Monster House (Ol 1967: 11). Olson does not have a specific clan for this house, only stating that it is a Wolf moiety house.
        • Hít Tlein: Big House. Olson has some comments from Charley Rudolph that are pertinent to this house (Ol 1967: 11):
          K!enta′n (probably Klentan [Tleintaan], big house people) known as Wuckitan [Wooshkeetaan] at Angoon.
          Olson does not however give a house called Hít Tlein in Áakʼw Ḵwáan.
        • Noow Hít: Fort House. Olson mentions a “Nuhittan [Noowhittaan]” in his discussion of household life (Ol 1967: 11), but he does not specify where this group is located. Given that this section follows immediately after his discussion of the Áakʼw Ḵwáan, it is possible that this mention could refer to the Wooshkeetaan Noow Hít at Áakʼw.
        • Tóosʼ Hít: Shark House (Ol 1967: 10).
        • Xeitl Hít: Thunderbird House (Ol 1967: 11). Olson does not have a specific clan for this house, only stating that it is a Wolf moiety house.
        • Xóots Hít: Brown Bear House (Ol 1967: 11). Olson actually gave this as a Kaagwaantaan house, but he was admittedly speculating from CR’s sketchy information. There is no independent evidence for a Kaagwaantaan house in Áakʼw Ḵwáan, but the Wooshkeetaan are the dominant Wolf clan there.
        • Ḵook Hít: Box House (Ol 1967: 11). This is mentioned by Olson who obtained information about Áakʼw Ḵwáan from CR. Olson gives “Kukhittan [Ḵookhittaan]” as the “probable clan” but neither he nor CR were apparently certain of this. This house is more likely to be part of the Wooshkeetaan who are the primary Wolf clan in Áakʼw Ḵwáan.
      • Xutsnoowú Ḵwáan
        • Noow Hít: Fort House.
        • Noowshaká Hít: Head of the Fort House.
        • Xóots Kúdi Hít: Brown Bear Nest House.
      • Sheetʼká Ḵwáan
        • Noow Hít: Fort House.
      • Xunaa Ḵáawu
        • Wooshdaa Hít: Around Each Other House.
        • Tóosʼ Déx̱ʼi Hít: Shark Backbone House.
        • Noow Hít: Fort House.
  6. Kaagwaantaan group
    1. Kaagwaantaan, Wanwaasháa, Yanwaasháa (Sheetʼká, Jilḵáat, Jilḵoot, Xunaa, G̱unaax̱oo): From Kaawagaani Hít ‘Burned Down House’. The feminine form is a nickname from ?wanwáa, a borrowing from English “man-o-war”, and referring to the adoption of the Navy (as Eagles) by the Sitka Kaagwaantaan. Related to the Chookaneidí (Sw). The variation between y and w implies ÿ but this is not verified.
      • Sheetʼká Ḵwáan
        • Aanyádi Hít: Nobleman House.
        • Eech Hít: Reef House.
        • Chʼáakʼ Hít: Eagle House.
        • Chʼáakʼ Kúdi Hít: Eagle Nest House.
        • Chʼeet Hít: Murrelet House.
        • Cháatl Hít: Halibut House.
        • Déix̱ X̱ʼawool Hít: Two Door House.
        • G̱aÿéisʼ Hit: Iron House.
        • G̱ooch Hít: Wolf House.
        • Ḵutx̱ayanaháa Hít: Star House.
        • Heenká Hít: On The Water House.
        • Xóots Hít: Brown Bear House.
        • Kaawagaani Hít: Burnt House.
        • Ḵuháada Hít: Fish-chasing Stick House.
      • Jilḵáat Ḵwáan
        • G̱ooch Hít: Wolf House.
        • Kéet Hít: Killerwhale House.
        • Ligooshí Hít: Dorsal-finned House.
      • Jilḵoot Ḵwáan
        • Xóots Hít: Brown Bear House.
        • Chʼáakʼ Hít: Eagle House.
        • Kaawagaani Hít: Burnt House.
      • Xunaa Ḵáawu
        • Xóots Kúdi Hít: Brown Bear Nest House.
      • G̱unax̱oo Ḵwáan
        • ?
    2. G̱alyáx̱ Kaagwaantaan (Yaakwdáat, G̱alyáx̱): The subgroup of the Kaagwaantaan from G̱alyáx̱, the Kaliakh River.
      • G̱alyáx̱ Ḵwáan
        • ?
    3. Ḵookhittaan (Sheetʼká): From Ḵóok Hít ‘Box House’, a Kaagwaantaan house group (Sw, EH, JM).
      • Áakʼw Ḵwáan
        • Ḵook Hít: Box House (Ol 1967: 11). Given by Olson as Ḵookhittaan, but robably not actually a Ḵookhittaan/Kaagwaantaan house. See the entry for this house under Áakʼw Ḵwáan in the Wooshkeetaan clan listing.
      • Sheetʼká Ḵwáan
        • Tóosʼ Hít: Shark House.
        • Ḵóok Hít: Box House.
        • Ḵutisʼ Hít: Looking Out House.
        • Tlʼaadéin Hít: Sideways House.
    4. Jeeshḵweidí, Jishḵweidí (G̱alyáx̱): De Laguna records variants with long and short vowels in the first syllable. Others only have it with a long vowel (WS, MS). A branch of the G̱alyáx̱ Kaagwaantaan (deL, NS Yakutat) “but certainly analogous to ‘Red Paint People’ among the Atna” (deL). These latter are the Tsesyuu /tsʰɛsjuː/ ‘red ochre clan’ in Ahtna (tsiis /tsʰiːs/ ‘red ochre’ was pronounced *či·š /tʃʰiːʃ/ at an earlier stage of the Ahtna language). Eyak ji·šqe·t(yu·) /tʃiːʃqeːtjuː/ (MK).
      • G̱alyáx̱ Ḵwáan
        • ?
  7. Chookaneidí group
    1. Chookaneidí, Chookansháa (Sheetʼká, Xunaa): From Chookán Héeni (Em, CJ, JM) or Chookanhéen (Sw 1908: 412) meaning ‘Beach-grass Stream’, upper Glacier Bay (CJ). This was the creek they were camped at when Ḵaakeixʼwtí returned from the interior with the Athabaskans (Sw 1908: 412).
      • Sheetʼká Ḵwáan
        • Xáatl Hít: Iceberg House.
        • Aan Eeg̱ayaak Hít: On the Beach Below Town House. The thing on the beach is said to be an iceberg.
      • Xunaa Ḵáawu
        • Naanaa Hít: Upriver House.
        • Xáatl Hít: Iceberg House.
        • Xóots Sʼaag̱í Hít: Brown Bear Bones House.
        • Ÿan Wulihashi Hít: Drifted Ashore House.
        • Aan Eeg̱ayaak Hít: On the Beach Below Town House. The thing on the beach is said to be an iceberg.
        • Shuxʼaa X̱aay Hít: First Yellow-cedar House.
    2. Xinhittaan, Xeenitaan (—): JJ says this is from ?Xeen Hít ‘Blue-fly House’, but JM says this is instead from Xinaahít, abbreviated from Ixinaa Hít ‘Downriver Side House’. A Chookanedí house group (JM, CJ). Location uncertain.
    3. G̱aÿesʼhittaan (Sheetʼká, Xunaa): From G̱aÿéisʼ Hít ‘Iron House’. A branch of the Chookaneidí (Sw, Em, JM). The word g̱aÿéisʼ is from an earlier iḵÿéisʼ (still used in Southern Tlingit), and deriving from eeḵ-ÿéisʼ ‘copper-dark’, thus meaning ‘dark colored copper’. (Compare chʼakʼÿéisʼ ‘immature eagle’.) This is an indigenous term, not a loanword from a European language. Tlingit people probably had some experience with so-called “drift iron”, small amounts of iron which washed up attached to driftwood from shipwrecks and other flotsam floating over from Asia on ocean currents. Meteorites are probably another source of pre-European iron.
      • Sheetʼká Ḵwáan
        • G̱aÿéisʼ Hít: Iron House. It is unclear if this is distinct from the Kaagwaantaan house of the same name.
      • Xunaa Ḵáawu
        • G̱aÿéisʼ Hít: Iron House.
    4. ?X̱ʼaxʼaahittaan (Sheetʼká, Heinÿaa): There are two similar names. Swanton gives “Q!ᴀq!a·ʼ hit ta·n (probably a division of the Ka·gwa·nta·n)” among the Sitka Wolf clans and says the name refers to a stick frame used to drive salmon into a trap (Sw 1908: 400). CJ says he has heard of X̱ʼaxʼaa Hít ‘Edge House’ which may be a Kaagwaantaan house. Emmons gives “Ka-qwoir-hit-tan” meaning “People of the Burned Comb House” (uncertan transcription) for Henya and Klawock, which de Laguna notes is a lineage of the Shangukeidí. This may not be the same clan as in Sitka.
      • Sheetʼká Ḵwáan
        • X̱ʼaxʼaa Hít: Edge House.
      • Heinÿaa Ḵwáan
        • ?
    5. Katakw.ádi, Katakw.wádi, Kadakw.ádi, Kadagwádi (Sheetʼká): From Katákw, Wilson Cove on the south side of Admiralty Island (AF, other unidentified NS materials). The first variant, from WS, is the expected form. WS also gave the second variant which he said was more proper: here it appears that the glottal stop (.) is rounded due to the preceding rounded consonant, and then this rounded glottal stop .w is simplified to just w. In the third variant (CJ, FH) and the fourth variant (JM) the t is changed to d for ease of pronunciation. Swanton has “Kᴀtagwᴀʹdi” which is unclear. The Katakw.ádi are considered to be related to the Chookaneidí (Sw 1908: 412; JM) but perhaps not directly; CJ says they are like brothers because the Chookaneidí gave them a woman to bear their children to replenish their clan when they were on the point of dying out (but she didn’t live long). AH3 (2003) inexplicably lists this clan in Xunaa Ḵáawu instead of Sheetʼká Ḵwáan, though Sw (1908: 400) quite clearly lists it in Sitka.
      • Sheetʼká Ḵwáan
        • X̱aay Hít: Yellow-cedar House.
  8. Yanÿeidí (Taku clans) group
    1. Yanÿeidí, Yanÿeidisháa (Sʼawdáan, Tʼaaḵu, Yaakwdáat): From Yán Hít ‘Hemlock House’ on the Taku River near where the glacier Tʼaaḵu Ḵwáan Sʼítʼi ‘Taku People’s Glacier’ used to be (EN). Like the Shangukeidí, they claim Killerwhale and Eagle (AS, LG). Swanton says “The Yanÿeidí of Taku had close relations with the Naanÿaa.aaÿí, the latter, who are said to have come from the same place, may formerly have constituted one clan with them.”
      • Sʼawdáan Ḵwáan
        • ?
      • Tʼaaḵu Ḵwáan
        • Chʼaalʼ Hít: Willow House.
      • Yaakwdáat Ḵwáan
        • ?
    2. Tsaatʼineidí (Tʼaaḵu): From Tsaatʼeihéen or Tsaatʼehéen ‘Stream Behind a Seal’, Youngs Bay (AF, GD, CJ).
      • Tʼaaḵu Ḵwáan
        • Xóots Hít: Brown Bear House.
        • Yayuwaa Hít: Between Them House. The ‘them’ is said to be two halves of a fork in the Taku River (AH3 2003).

The Eagle clan — Neix̱.ádi

  1. Neix̱.ádi (Saanÿaa): From Neix̱, Naha Bay, western Behm Canal (WS, HD), though Swanton gives the more inexact “creek in their country” (Sw 1908: 409). They are the Eagle clan, and fall outside of both moieties (Em, Sw 1908: 409), and hence are able to marry people from either the Raven or Wolf sides. HD gives Kiks.ádi and Teiḵweidí as two example clans for Neix̱.ádi marriage within the Saanÿaa Ḵwáan. Their principal crest is the Eagle Chʼáakʼ, but they also claim the Beaver Sʼigeidí (compare the Deisheetaan) and the Halibut Cháatl. Boas says these people correspond to the Gun-huut division of the Coast Tsimshian Eagles, a group of “runaways” from Alaska {cite}. Swanton says “Along with many clans, they are supposed to have ome from ‘below Port Simpson’ but on the other hand it is possible that their origin is connected with an Athapascan tribe, which formerly occupied the shores of Behm Canal just northward and intermarried with the Tlingit to a considerable extent. The remnants of these Athapascans are now living at Kincolith among the Nass Indians [Nisg̱aʼa].” (Sw 1908: 409). The Athabaskans that Swanton was referring to were the Tsʼetsʼaut, known in their own language as Wetaał /wətʰaːɬ/ (note the interesting parallel with the taał in the Tahltan ethnonym Taałtaan /tʰaːɬtaːn/ which is probably unrelated to Tlingit taal ‘wide, flat basket’), and who were completely absorbed into the Nisg̱aʼa by the early 20th century. Tsʼetsʼaut territory seems to have been mostly along Portland Canal and Observatory Inlet which was also claimed by the Taantʼá Ḵwáan, although the Tsʼetsʼaut might also have had some territory along the Unuk River and upper Behm Canal as Swanton suggests (Bo), an area which is otherwise Saanÿaa Ḵwáan territory. The Neix̱.ádi – or a portion of their population – might indeed derive from the Tsʼetsʼaut, however this is entirely hypothetical and probably impossible to verify.

References


James A. Crippen / Dzéiwsh / Gaanyaa
Deisheetaan, Kaaḵáakʼw Hít (Ḵakʼweidí); Sʼiknax̱.ádi yádi; Shtaxʼhéen Ḵwáan
Last updated: 14-December-2012